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Table 1 General characteristics of the subjects

From: Vitamin D status and associated occupational factors in Korean wage workers: data from the 5th Korea national health and nutrition examination survey (KNHANES 2010–2012)

  Male Female Total
N* % N % N %
Total (N) 2868 2541 5409
Age (years) 20-29 385 13.4% 548 21.6% 933 17.2%
30-39 903 31.5% 630 24.8% 1533 28.3%
40-49 793 27.6% 630 24.8% 1423 26.3%
50-65 787 27.4% 733 28.8% 1520 28.1%
Body mass index (BMI) (n = 5393) <23 1040 36.4% 1472 58.1% 2512 46.6%
23-25 741 25.9% 489 19.3% 1230 22.8%
≥25 1077 37.7% 574 22.6% 1651 30.6%
Dietary supplementation (n = 4590) Yes 922 40.3% 1182 51.4% 2104 45.8%
No 1368 59.7% 1118 48.6% 2486 54.2%
Physical activity Yes 254 8.9% 223 8.8% 477 8.8%
No 2614 91.1% 2317 91.2% 4931 91.2%
Drinking Yes 2249 78.4% 1252 49.3% 3501 64.7%
No 619 21.6% 1289 50.7% 1908 35.3%
Smoking status None/ex-smoker 1553 54.1% 2372 93.3% 3925 72.6%
Current smoker 1315 45.9% 169 6.7% 1484 27.4%
Marital status Married 2324 81.0% 1910 75.2% 4234 78.3%
Unmarried 544 19.0% 631 24.8% 1175 21.7%
Income (quartile) Low 154 5.4% 216 8.5% 370 6.8%
Middle low 739 25.8% 645 25.4% 1384 25.6%
Middle high 1020 35.6% 837 32.9% 1857 34.3%
High 955 33.3% 843 33.2% 1798 33.2%
Education Less than elementary school 121 4.2% 285 11.2% 406 7.5%
Middle school 183 6.4% 258 10.2% 441 8.2%
High school 889 31.0% 831 32.7% 1720 31.8%
More than college 1675 58.4% 1167 45.9% 2842 52.5%
Shift work Yes 532 18.5% 437 17.2% 969 17.9%
No 2336 81.5% 2104 82.8% 4440 82.1%
Stability of work Permanent worker 2432 84.8% 1831 72.1% 4263 78.8%
Temporary worker 436 15.2% 710 27.9% 1146 21.2%
Employment type Part-time worker 167 5.8% 638 25.1% 805 14.9%
Full-time worker 2701 94.2% 1903 74.9% 4604 85.1%
Occupation Office worker 1427 49.8% 1232 48.5% 2659 49.2%
Service worker 291 10.1% 598 23.5% 889 16.4%
Manufacturing worker 1150 40.1% 711 28.0% 1861 34.4%
Working hours/week <40 413 14.4% 963 37.9% 1376 25.4%
40-52 1561 54.4% 1188 46.8% 2749 50.8%
52-60 332 11.6% 188 7.4% 520 9.6%
≥60 562 19.6% 202 7.9% 764 14.1%
  1. *Unweighted count.