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Table 2 Relationships of general and work-related characteristics to fatigue* by gender

From: Fatigue and related factors among hotel workers: the effects of emotional labor and non-standard working hours

Variables Male (N = 620) Female (N = 396)
  Normal High Normal High
Age(years)     
  20–29 121 (23.5) 21 (20.0)‡ 119 (45.6) 67 (49.6)
  30–39 152 (29.5) 45 (42.9) 65 (24.9) 48 (35.6)
  40–49 128 (24.9) 25 (23.8) 28 (10.7) 14 (10.4)
  ≥50 114 (22.1) 14 (13.3) 49 (18.8) 6 (4.4)
Marital status     
  Married 304 (59.0) 69 (65.7) 106 (40.6) 45 (33.3)
  Single 211 (41.0) 36 (34.3) 155 (59.4) 90 (66.7)
Smoking     
  No 244 (47.4) 57 (54.3) 250 (95.8) 129 (95.6)
  Yes 271 (52.6) 48 (45.7) 11 (4.2) 6 (4.4)
Alcohol drinking     
  No 75 (14.6) 17 (16.2) 97 (37.2) 40 (29.6)
  Yes 440 (85.4) 88 (83.8) 164 (62.8) 95 (70.4)
Regular exercise     
  No 104 (20.2) 34 (32.4)‡ 82 (31.4) 62 (45.9)
  Yes 411 (79.8) 71 (67.6) 179 (68.6) 73 (54.1)
Daily sleeping hours     
  ≤6 256 (49.7) 53 (50.5) 137 (52.5) 70 (51.9)
  >6 259 (50.3) 52 (49.5) 124 (47.5) 65 (48.1)
Sleep satisfaction     
  Satisfied 318 (61.7) 45 (57.1) 130 (49.8) 40 (29.6)
  Not satisfied 197 (38.3) 60 (42.9) 131 (50.2) 95 (70.4)
BMI(kg/m2)     
  <25 354 (68.7) 68 (64.8) 231 (88.5) 128 (94.8)
  ≥25 161 (31.3) 37 (35.2) 30 (11.5) 7 (5.2)
Department     
  Dining hall 127 (24.7) 30 (28.6)‡ 96 (36.8) 59 (43.7)
  Guest services 82 (15.9) 15 (14.3) 65 (24.9) 34 (25.2)
  Housekeeping 22 (4.3) 3 (2.9) 23 (8.8) 5 (3.7)
  Kitchen 154 (29.9) 47 (44.8) 24 (9.2) 11 (8.1)
  Back office 56 (10.9) 6 (5.7) 51 (19.5) 26 (19.3)
  Grounds 74 (14.4) 4 (3.8) 2 (0.8) 0 (0.0)
Work tenure(years)     
  ≤9 202 (39.2) 41 (39.0)‡ 152 (58.2) 92 (68.1)
  10–19 148 (28.7) 41 (39.0) 70 (26.8) 36 (26.7)
  ≥20 165 (32.0) 23 (22.0) 39 (14.9) 7 (5.2)
Weekly working hours     
  ≤39 191 (37.1) 25 (23.8)‡ 88 (33.7) 30 (22.2)
  40–59 285 (55.3) 63 (60.0) 164 (62.8) 95 (70.4)
  ≥60 39 (7.6) 17 (16.2) 9 (3.4) 10 (7.4)
Shift work     
  No 234 (45.4) 34 (32.4)‡ 121 (46.4) 40 (29.6)
  Yes 281 (54.6) 71 (67.6) 140 (53.6) 95 (70.4)
Overtime work     
  No 257 (49.9) 34 (32.4)‡ 153 (58.6) 58 (43.0)
  Yes 258 (50.1) 71 (67.6) 108 (41.4) 77 (57.0)
Work intensity     
  Low 331 (64.3) 45 (42.9) 156 (59.8) 63 (46.7)
  High 184 (35.7) 60 (57.1) 105 (40.2) 72 (53.3)
Emotional effort     
  Low (Q1) 189 (36.7) 11 (10.5) 84 (32.2) 14 (10.4)
  Middle (Q2) 138 (26.8) 23 (21.9) 67 (25.7) 28 (20.7)
  High (Q3) 119 (23.1) 38 (36.2) 58 (22.2) 38 (28.1)
  Very high (Q4) 69 (13.4) 33 (31.4) 52 (19.9) 55 (40.7)
Emotional disharmony     
  Low (Q1) 142 (27.6) 8 (7.6) 76 (29.1) 9 (6.7)
  Middle (Q2) 146 (28.3) 15 (14.3) 87 (33.3) 26 (19.3)
  High (Q3) 135 (26.2) 27 (25.7) 47 (18.0) 31 (23.0)
  Very high (Q4) 92 (17.9) 55 (52.4) 51 (19.5) 69 (51.1)
  1. Unit: N(%).
  2. *fatigue (Multidimensional Fatigue Scale) was dichotomized as either normal (Q1, Q2, Q3) or high (Q4).
  3. p < 0.001, p < 0.05 by chi-square test.
  4. Q1, Q2, Q3, and Q4 indicates1st quartile, 2nd quartile, 3rd quartile, and 4th quartile.
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