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Table 1 Descriptive characteristics of study participants

From: Emphysema prevalence related air pollution caused by a cement plant

Variables LEG (n = 317) MEG (n = 1,046) Total (n = 1,363) P-value
Sex Female 194 (61.2) 655 (62.6) 849 (62.3) 0.684
Male 123 (38.8) 391 (37.4) 514 (37.7)  
Age ≤59 98 (30.9) 297 (28.4) 395 (29.0) 0.337
60–69 85 (26.8) 325 (31.1) 410 (30.1)  
≥70 134 (42.3) 424 (40.5) 558 (40.9)  
BMI ≥25.0 113 (35.6) 449 (42.9) 562 (41.2) 0.002
24.9–20.0 164 (51.7) 525 (50.2) 689 (50.6)  
≤19.9 40 (12.6) 72 (6.9) 112 (8.2)  
Residency period ≤24 93 (29.3) 296 (28.3) 389 (28.5) 0.720
≥25 224 (70.7) 750 (71.7) 974 (71.5)  
Smoking Never 213 (67.2) 716 (68.5) 929 (68.2) 0.854
≤29 51 (16.1) 155 (14.8) 206 (15.1)  
≥30 53 (16.7) 175 (16.7) 228 (16.7)  
Firewood Not use 114 (36.0) 570 (54.5) 684 (50.2) 0.000
Use 203 (64.0) 497 (45.5) 679 (49.8)  
Income ≥100 107 (33.8) 330 (31.5) 437 (32.1) 0.461
≤99 210 (66.2) 716 (68.5) 926 (67.9)  
  1. P-value by chi-square test
  2. MEG: ‘more exposed group’ who lived within the 1 km radius of the cement plant
  3. LEG: ‘less exposed group’ who lived 5 km or more away from the cement plant in not related to usually wind direction
  4. Age and Residency period: years, Body mass index (BMI); kg/m2, Smoking: pack-years, Income: ten thousand won (Korea)/month