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Table 1 Demographic and clinical features of the study population

From: Risk factors associated with mortality from pneumonia among patients with pneumoconiosis

  Total Clinical outcome
   Survival Decease p-value
Age 71.0 ± 7.2 71.4 ± 7.1 70.0 ± 7.4 0.456
 50–59   5 (8.2 %) 1 (4.8 %)  
 60–69   14 (23.0 %) 10 (47.6 %)  
 70–79   39 (63.9 %) 8 (38.1 %)  
 Over 80   3 (4.9 %) 2 (9.5 %) 0.119
Smoking history     
 Pack-yearsa 18.0 ± 18.1 15.9 ± 16.9 24.2 ± 20.3 0.068
 Never smoker   14 (23.0 %) 2 (9.5 %)  
 Previous smoker   44 (72.1 %) 18 (85.7 %)  
 Current smoker   3 (4.9 %) 1 (4.8 %) 0.401
Pneumoconiosis characteristicsb     
Profusion of small opacity     
 1   15 (24.6 %) 2 (9.5 %)  
 2   37 (60.7 %) 13 (62.0 %)  
 3   9 (14.8 %) 6 (28.6 %) 0.188
Grade of large opacity     
 No   17 (27.9 %) 3 (14.3 %)  
 A   8 (13.1 %) 4 (19.0 %)  
 B   22 (36.1 %) 10 (47.6 %)  
 C   14 (23.0 %) 4 (19.0 %) 0.532
Pulmonary function profiles     
FEV1 % predicted 50.9 ± 20.6 53.6 ± 22.1 43.1 ± 13.4 0.012
 70 ≤   13 (21.3 %) 1 (4.8 %)  
  < 70   48 (78.7 %) 20 (95.2 %) 0.102
FVC % predicted 63.4 ± 17.7 66.9 ± 18.1 53.4 ± 11.9 <0.001
 70 ≤   25 (40.9 %) 2 (9.5 %)  
  < 70   36 (59.0 %) 19 (90.5 %) 0.008
FEV1/FVC ratio 58.3 ± 18.4 57.8 ± 18.0 59.9 ± 19.9 0.648
 70 ≤   19 (31.1 %) 8 (38.1 %)  
  < 70   42 (68.9 %) 13 (61.9 %) 0.559
Type of pneumoconiosis     
 silicosis   14 (22.9 %) 3 (14.3 %)  
 CWPc   47 (77.1 %) 18 (85.7 %) 0.839
Recent pneumoniad     
 No   46 (75.4 %) 9 (42.9 %)  
 Yes   15 (24.6 %) 12 (57.1 %) 0.006
Interstitial fibrosise     
 No   54 (88.5 %) 13 (61.9%)  
 Yes   7 (11.5 %) 8 (38.1 %) 0.007
Fungal ballf     
 No   59 (96.7 %) 18 (85.7 %)  
 Yes   2 (3.3 %) 3 (14.3 %) 0.103
Hospitalized days 14.8 ± 13.5 13.0 ± 13.4 19.9 ± 13.0 0.044
Total 82 (100 %) 61 (74.4 %) 21 (25.6 %)  
  1. Mean values are shown in bold type with standard deviation following ± mark. Categorical values are presented with number of the case followed by percentage in brackets
  2. aPack-years: Pack-years of never smokers were counted as 0
  3. bPneumoconiosis characteristics: Radiographic findings assessed in accordance with ILO classification
  4. cCWP : Coal worker’s pneumoconiosis
  5. dRecent pneumonia: History of recent hospitalization due to pneumonia within 90 days from the last day of hospitalization with pneumonia
  6. eInterstitial fibrosis: Presence of interstitial fibrosis confirmed by findings of chest CT including ILD, IPF, non-specific interstitial fibrosis or fibrotic type pneumoconiosis
  7. fFungal ball: Concomitancy of fungal ball infection confirmed by sputum culture and chest CT