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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study subjects according to initial serum fasting glucose level

From: Risks of borderline liver enzyme abnormalities to the incidence of impaired fasting glucose and diabetes mellitus: a 7 year follow up study of workers

Variables Normal IFG DM p-value*
n = 633 (84.5 %) n = 98 (13.1 %) n = 18 (2.4 %)
Demographic variables
 Sexa     0.005
  Male 561 (83.1) 97 (14.4) 17 (2.5)  
  Female 72 (97.3) 1 (1.4) 1 (1.4)  
 Age (year)b 38.9 ± 7.95 45.4 ± 7.79 47.0 ± 8.68 0.000
 Work duration (year)b 9.2 ± 7.67 15.1 ± 8.43 15.8 ± 6.41 0.000
 Occupationa     0.056
  Office work 110 (79.1) 21 (15.1) 8 (5.8)  
  Production work 442 (85.8) 65 (12.6) 8 (1.6)  
  Research work 81 (85.3) 12 (12.6) 2 (2.1)  
 Job positiona     0.000
  Executive 159 (70.4) 56 (24.8) 11 (4.9)  
  General 474 (90.6) 42 (8.0) 7 (1.3)  
Health related behaviorsa     
 Alcohol drinking     0.989
  Healthy drinking 393 (84.8) 60 (12.8) 11 (2.4)  
  Unhealthy drinking 235 (84.5) 36 (12.9) 7 (2.5)  
 Smoking     0.647
  Non-smoker 308 (84.8) 49 (13.5) 6 (1.7)  
  Ex-smoker 81 (81.8) 14 (14.1) 4 (4.0)  
  Current smoker 240 (84.8) 35 (12.4) 8 (2.8)  
 Exercise per week     0.118
  0 233 (86.9) 25 (9.3) 10 (3.7)  
  1-2 265 (82.8) 49 (15.3) 6 (1.9)  
   > 3 125 (85.6) 19 (13.0) 2 (1.4)  
Laboratory test resultsb
 BMI (kg/m2) 23.5 ± 2.95 24.6 ± 2.72 25.3 ± 2.98 0.000
 Systolic BP (mmHg) 115.6 ± 11.15 123.4 ± 14.68 125.6 ± 11.74 0.000
 Diastolic BP (mmHg) 70.8 ± 7.65 77.1 ± 11.39 76.3 ± 8.77 0.000
 Hemoglobin (g/dL) 14.3 ± 1.37 14.6 ± 1.13 14.8 ± 1.23 0.032
 AST (IU/L) 24.3 ± 8.81 25.9 ± 18.90 31.7 ± 28.47 0.015
 ALT (IU/L) 26.7 ± 17.91 32.8 ± 30.00 46.4 ± 40.64 0.000
 γ-GTP (IU/L) 36.2 ± 28.29 53.6 ± 45.80 67.4 ± 66.67 0.000
 Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 188.9 ± 33.32 197.5 ± 36.59 221.7 ± 45.49 0.000
 Triglyceride (mg/dL) 135.2 ± 98.86 162.3 ± 80.80 175.3 ± 107.62 0.018
 HDL-C (mg/dL) 55.6 ± 12.37 52.0 ± 11.86 57.5 ± 15.67 0.032
  1. IFG impaired fasting glucose, DM diabetes mellitus, BMI body mass index, BP blood pressure, AST aspartate aminotransferase, ALT alanine aminotransferase, γ-GTP Gamma-glutamyltransferase, HDL High density lipoprotein
  2. *Chi-square test or ANOVA test
  3. aN (%)
  4. bMean ± SD