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Table 2 Geometric mean of heavy metals in blood by characteristics of study population

From: Blood cadmium and volume of uterine fibroids in premenopausal women

  Cadmium (μg/L) P Lead (μg/dL) P Mercury (μg/L) P
GM ± GSD   GM ± GSD   GM ± GSD  
All 0.98 ± 1.45   1.36 ± 1.41   1.61 ± 1.81  
Age
 <40 years old 0.94 ± 1.41 <0.001 1.33 ± 1.42 0.058 1.55 ± 1.80 0.046
 ≥40 years old 1.14 ± 1.50   1.46 ± 1.36   1.80 ± 1.82
Education
 ≤High school 1.00 ± 1.49 0.451 1.40 ± 1.40 0.267 1.67 ± 1.79 0.442
 ≥University 0.97 ± 1.43   1.34 ± 1.42   1.58 ± 1.82
Income/monthly
 <4,000,000 1.00 ± 1.46 0.824 1.39 ± 1.41 0.166 1.54 ± 1.88 0.143
 ≥4,000,000 0.97 ± 1.43   1.33 ± 1.40   1.70 ± 1.72
Body mass index
 Non-obesity (<25 kg/m2) 0.98 ± 1.42 0.479 1.36 ± 1.43 0.873 1.55 ± 1.81 0.010
 Obesity (≥25 kg/m2) 0.99 ± 1.59   1.38 ± 1.30   2.01 ± 1.74
Hemoglobin
 Anemia (<12 g/dL) 0.96 ± 1.42 0.002 1.35 ± 1.42 0.491 1.64 ± 1.79 0.118
 Non-anemia (≥12 g/dL) 1.22 ± 1.62   1.42 ± 1.28   1.34 ± 1.93
Serum cotinine
 No exposure (<10 ng/ml) 0.97 ± 1.45 0.024 1.36 ± 1.42 0.252 1.63 ± 1.82 0.123
 Passive/Active/Heavy smoking (10 ≥ ng/ml) 1.12 ± 1.41   1.30 ± 1.35   1.36 ± 1.65
Disease status
 Women without fibroids 0.97 ± 1.43 0.169 1.35 ± 1.41 0.334 1.59 ± 1.82 0.317
 Women with fibroids 1.07 ± 1.52   1.43 ± 1.43   1.73 ± 1.76
Fibroid size of women with fibroids
 Smaller than median size (<1.82cm3) 1.01 ± 1.51 0.839 1.36 ± 1.53 0.946 1.89 ± 1.66 0.433
 Larger than median size (≥1.82cm3) 1.07 ± 1.55   1.45 ± 1.38   1.64 ± 1.81