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Table 2. Geometric mean and range of blood lead (μg/L), cadmium (μg/g Creatinine) of study subjects

From: Levels of blood lead and urinary cadmium in industrial complex residents in Ulsan

Classification variables Number Lead Cadmium
Total Non-exposure Exposure Total Non-exposure Exposure
2.172 ± 1.590 2.449 ± 1.510* 0.709 ± 2.344 1.077 ± 2.169*
Gender Men 173 2.835 ± 1.516 (2.663–3.018) 2.599 ± 1.486 2.917 ± 1.522 0.718 ± 2.221 (0..603–0.810) 0.484 ± 2.169 0.818 ± 2.149*
Women 256 2.108 ± 1.484 (2.008–2.213)* 1.933 ± 1.600 2.173 ± 1.436* 1.185 ± 2.144 (1.079–1.302)* 0.908 ± 2.254 1.300 ± 2.063*
Age group 20–29 61 1.698 ± 1.450 (1.544–1.868) 1.544 ± 1.516 1.773 ± 1.413 0.373 ± 1.966 (0.313–0.443) 0.275 ± 2.169 0.428 ± 1.797*
30–39 42 2.139 ± 1.404 (1.946–2.351) 2.247 ± 1.489 2.088 ± 1.364 0.638 ± 1.869 (0.536–0.759) 0.535 ± 2.112 0.695 ± 1.730
40–49 85 2.386 ± 1.444 (2.204–2.583) 2.283 ± 1.516 2.426 ± 1.419 0.806 ± 2.043 (0.691–0.941) 0.690 ± 2.127 0.855 ± 2.007
50–59 83 2.683 ± 1.573 (2.430–2.962) †§ 2.434 ± 2.751 2.751 ± 1.610 1.367 ± 1.830 (1.198–1.560) †§ 0.983 ± 1.826 1.488 ± 1.785*
60–69 88 2.594 ± 1.467 (2.391–2.814) †§ 2.420 ± 1.424 2.647 ± 1.480 1.453 ± 1.872 (1.272–1.660) †§ 1.165 ± 1.840 1.550 ± 1.862
Over 70 60 2.701 ± 1.604 (2.390–3.052) †§ 2.290 ± 2.117 2.827 ± 1.434 1.628 ± 1.826 (1.394–1.903) †§ 1.198 ± 1.704 1.734 ± 1.841
Body Mass Index Non-obese (<25 kg/m2) 306 2.319 ± 1.543 (2.208–2.435) 1.977 ± 1.599 2.451 ± 1.502* 0.970 ± 2.262 (0.885–1.064) 0.687 ± 2.351 1.094 ± 2.157*
Obese (≥25 kg/m2) 123 2.522 ± 1.509 (2.344–2.715) 2.784 ± 1.417 2.443 ± 1.532 0.964 ± 2.254 (0.834–1.115) 0.768 ± 2.347 1.038 ± 2.204
Smoking status Non-smoker 300 2.179 ± 1.517 (2.078–2.284) 1.906 ± 1.571 2.274 ± 1.486* 1.027 ± 2.337 (0.933–1.131) 0.752 ± 2.496 1.136 ± 2.233*
Smoker 129 2.905 ± 1.474 (2.715–3.108)* 2.831 ± 1.446 2.934 ± 1.487 0.844 ± 2.038 (0.746–0.956)* 0.628 ± 2.023 0.946 ± 1.983*
Drinking status Non-drinker 276 2.476 ± 1.545 (2.351–2.607) 2.332 ± 1.538 2.531 ± 1.546 0.812 ± 2.225 (0.739–0.893) 0.595 ± 2.259 0.911 ± 2.149*
Drinker 153 2.205 ± 1.503 (2.066–2.353)* 1.870 ± 1.652 2.315 ± 1.439* 1.330 ± 2.103 (1.181–1.498)* 1.027 ± 2.269 1.436 ± 2.023*
Educational status High school and less 263 2.514 ± 1.500 (2.393–2.641) 2.314 ± 1.654 2.562 ± 1.461 1.299 ± 2.033 (1.191–1.415) 1.068 ± 1.904 1.358 ± 2.049*
College and more 166 2.172 ± 1.567 (2.027–2.327)* 2.063 ± 1.532 2.236 ± 1.586 0.608 ± 2.122 (0.542–0.683)* 0.507 ± 2.360 0.675 ± 1.950*
Distance to road Above 100 m 202 2.320 ± 1.538 (2.185–2.463) 2.167 ± 1.502 2.386 ± 1.550 0.944 ± 2.231 (0.845–1.055) 0.686 ± 2.452 1.077 ± 2.062*
Under 100 m 225 2.422 ± 1.533 (2.290–2.562) 2.179 ± 1.695 2.497 ± 1.477* 0.992 ± 2.290 (0.889–1.106) 0.736 ± 2.232 1.080 ± 2.267*
  1. unit: geometric mean ± standard deviation (95% confidence interval)
  2. * p < 0.05
  3. p < 0.05 vs. age group (20–29)
  4. § p < 0.05 vs. age group (30–39)