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Table 3 Estimated associations of IQR increases in annual average air pollution and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)

From: Association between exposure to ambient air pollution and renal function in Korean adults

  Unadjusted Model Model 1a Model 2b
Air pollutants β (95% CI) p-value β (95% CI) p-value β (95% CI) p-value
PM10 (μg/m3) −3.10 (− 3.47, − 2.73) < 0.0001 − 0.58 (− 1.00, − 0.17) 0.0054 − 0.46 (− 0.87, − 0.04) 0.0314
NO2 (ppb) − 0.78 (− 1.16, − 0.41) 0.0010 − 0.93 (− 1.47, − 0.39) 0.0008 −0.85 (− 1.40, − 0.30) 0.0026
SO2 (ppb) −1.58 (− 1.78, − 1.38) < 0.0001 0.14 (− 0.07, 0.34) 0.1903 0.17 (− 0.03, 0.38) 0.1015
CO (ppm) −2.25 (− 2.48, − 2.01) < 0.0001 −0.02 (− 0.27, 0.22) 0.8568 0.03 (− 0.21, 0.28) 0.7878
  1. CI, confidence interval, PM 10 particulate matter < 10 μm in diameter, NO 2 nitrogen dioxide, SO 2 sulfur dioxide, CO carbon monoxide
  2. The beta coefficient and 95% confidence interval in each air pollutant was scaled to the interquartile range for each pollutant, respectively (10 μg/m3 for PM10, 12 ppb for NO2, 1 ppb for SO2, and 0.1 ppm for CO)
  3. aModel 1 was adjusted for demographic variables including age, sex, household income quartile, education level, smoking, alcohol consumption, high protein intake, survey year, and residential region
  4. bModel 2 was adjusted for demographic variables plus clinical variables including body mass index, total cholesterol, fasting glucose, diabetes, systolic blood pressure, and hypertension