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Table 4 Estimated associations of IQR increases in annual average air pollution and chronic kidney disease (CKD)

From: Association between exposure to ambient air pollution and renal function in Korean adults

  Unadjusted Model Model 1a Model 2b
Air pollutants OR (95% CI) p-value OR (95% CI) p-value OR (95% CI) p-value
PM10 (μg/m3) 1.40 (1.27, 1.53) < 0.0001 1.14 (1.00, 1.29) 0.0436 1.10 (0.96, 1.25) 0.1665
NO2 (ppb) 0.98 (0.89, 1.08) 0.6759 1.09 (0.93, 1.29) 0.2909 1.06 (0.89, 1.26) 0.5257
SO2 (ppb) 1.18 (1.13, 1.24) < 0.0001 0.96 (0.91, 1.03) 0.2343 0.97 (0.91,1.04) 0.3535
CO (ppm) 1.26 (1.19, 1.34) < 0.0001 1.02 (0.95, 1.09) 0.6420 0.99 (0.92,1.06) 0.7628
  1. OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, PM 10 particulate matter < 10 μm in diameter, NO 2 nitrogen dioxide, SO 2 sulfur dioxide, CO carbon monoxide
  2. The odds ratio and 95% confidence interval in each air pollutant was scaled to the interquartile range for each pollutant, respectively (10 μg/m3 for PM10, 12 ppb for NO2, 1 ppb for SO2, and 0.1 ppm for CO)
  3. aModel 1 was adjusted for demographic variables including age, sex, household income quartile, education level, smoking, alcohol consumption, high protein intake, survey year, and residential region
  4. bModel 2 was adjusted for demographic variables plus clinical variables including body mass index, total cholesterol, fasting glucose, diabetes, systolic blood pressure, and hypertension