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Table 3 Logistic regression analysis for ergonomic risk-factor exposure and work-related LBP

From: Relationship between simultaneous exposure to ergonomic risk factors and work-related lower back pain: a cross-sectional study based on the fourth Korean working conditions survey

  Work-related LBP
Ergonomic risk factor Crude Adjusteda
Fatigue-inducing or painful posture
 None (ref) (ref)
 Mild 2.28 (2.04–2.54)* 1.86 (1.65–2.08)*
 Moderate 4.71 (4.21–5.28)* 3.27 (2.89–3.69)*
 Severe 7.90 (6.97–8.94)* 5.09 (4.46–5.83)*
Lifting or moving people
 None (ref) (ref)
 Mild 0.90 (0.85–0.95)** 0.82 (0.77–0.88)*
 Moderate 0.98 (0.86–1.12) 0.78 (0.68–0.89)*
 Severe 2.55 (2.11–3.09)* 1.98 (1.62–2.42)*
Dragging, pushing, or moving heavy objects
 None (ref) (ref)
 Mild 1.89 (1.76–2.04)* 1.38 (1.27–1.50)*
 Moderate 2.68 (2.45–2.93)* 1.64 (1.49–1.82)*
 Severe 3.34 (2.94–3.79)* 2.09 (1.82–2.40)*
Standing posture
 None (ref) (ref)
 Mild 1.45 (1.32–1.60)* 1.09 (0.98–1.20)
 Moderate 2.03 (1.84–2.24)* 1.35 (1.21–1.50)*
 Severe 2.56 (2.30–2.84)* 1.79 (1.60–2.01)*
Repetitive hand or arm movements
 None (ref) (ref)
 Mild 1.47 (1.31–1.64)* 1.23 (1.10–1.38)*
 Moderate 2.35 (2.11–2.62)* 1.69 (1.51–1.90)*
 Severe 3.08 (2.76–3.44)* 2.04 (1.82–2.30)*
  1. Abbreviations: LBP lower back pain
  2. Data presented as odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals
  3. aAdjusted for sex, age, occupational type, employment status, working hours, shift work, number of employees, education, income, rest during work time, and vibration exposure
  4. *p-value < 0.001
  5. **p-value < 0.05