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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of the subjects

From: The association between shift work and chronic kidney disease in manual labor workers using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES 2011–2014)

Variable Male Female Total p-valuea
Total 2210 1294 3504  
Age (years) 46.1 ± 0.3 52.2 ± 0.5 47.9 ± 0.3 < 0.001
 20–29 133 (10.7) 41 (6.1) 174 (9.4) < 0.001
 30–39 397 (21.8) 103 (9.3) 500 (18.2)  
 40–49 466 (26.1) 265 (26.1) 731 (26.1)  
 50–59 628 (27.2) 406 (31.4) 1034 (28.4)  
  ≥ 60 586 (14.2) 479 (27.1) 1065 (17.9)  
Education     < 0.001
 ≤ Elementary school 417 (14.2) 577 (37.4) 994 (20.9)  
 Middle school 393 (16.0) 215 (17.1) 608 (16.3)  
 High school 1006 (50.5) 428 (39.3) 1434 (47.3)  
 ≥ College or graduate school 394 (19.3) 74 (6.3) 468 (15.5)  
Household income     < 0.001
 Low 234 (7.6) 336 (22.1) 570 (11.8)  
 Low-middle 731 (33.6) 411 (31.5) 1142 (33.0)  
 Middle-high 741 (35.1) 333 (28.8) 1074 (33.3)  
 High 504 (23.7) 214 (17.6) 718 (21.9)  
Smoking status     < 0.001
 Non-smoker 369 (17.2) 1163 (87.4) 1532 (37.5)  
 Ex-smoker 822 (33.0) 50 (4.7) 872 (24.8)  
 Current smoker 1019 (49.8) 81 (8.0) 1100 (37.7)  
Alcohol intake (per month)     < 0.001
 Never 297 (11.6) 507 (35.8) 804 (18.6)  
  ≤ 1 420 (19.2) 476 (37.3) 896 (24.4)  
 2–3 564 (27.1) 210 (18.1) 774 (24.5)  
 ≥4 929 (42.2) 101 (8.8) 1030 (32.5)  
Work hours per week     
  ≤ 48 1191 (52.3) 1019 (76.4) 2210 (59.3) < 0.001
  > 48 1019 (47.7) 275 (23.6) 1294 (40.7)  
Work schedule     < 0.001
 Day work 1707 (79.9) 1133 (86.4) 2840 (81.7)  
 Shift work 503 (20.1) 161 (13.6) 664 (18.3)  
CKDb     0.013
 No 2023 (93.2) 1158 (90.5) 3181 (92.4)  
 Yes 187 (6.8) 136 (9.5) 323 (7.6)  
BMI (kg/m2)     0.098
 Underweight (< 18.5) 48 (2.4) 37 (3.2) 85 (2.6)  
 Normal (18.5–25) 1355 (61.3) 808 (62.1) 2163 (61.5)  
 Overweight (25–30) 730 (32.4) 378 (29.2) 1108 (31.5)  
 Obese (≥30) 77 (4.0) 71 (5.5) 148 (4.4)  
Diabetes mellitus     0.058
 No 1935 (89.6) 1165 (91.7) 3100 (90.2)  
 Yes 275 (10.4) 129 (8.3) 404 (9.8)  
Hypertension     0.885
 No 1461 (70.8) 858 (71.1) 2319 (70.9)  
 Yes 749 (29.2) 436 (28.9) 1185 (29.1)  
SBP (mmHg) 120.1 ± 0.39 119.6 ± 0.64 120.0 ± 0.33 < 0.001
DBP (mmHg) 79.3 ± 0.30 75.2 ± 0.35 78.1 ± 0.24 < 0.001
Fasting glucose (mg/dl) 100.5 ± 0.54 98.0 ± 0.64 99.8 ± 0.42 < 0.001
Total cholesterol (mg/dl) 189.0 ± 0.86 194.7 ± 1.28 190.6 ± 0.71 < 0.001
  1. BMI, body mass index; CKD, chronic kidney disease; CKD-EPI, CKD epidemiology collaboration, DBP, diastolic blood pressure; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; SBP, systolic blood pressure; UACR, urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio
  2. acalculated by complex samples, chi-squared test for categorical variables and t-test for continuous variables
  3. bdefined as UACR> 30 mg/g and/or eGFR< 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 estimated by the CKD-EPI equation
  4. Values are expressed as unweighted counts and estimated percentages N(%) for categorical variables and as mean ± standard errors for continuous variables