Open Access

Review of carcinogenicity of asbestos and proposal of approval standards of an occupational cancer caused by asbestos in Korea

  • Sanghyuk Im1Email author,
  • Kan-woo Youn1,
  • Donghee Shin1,
  • Myeoung-jun Lee1 and
  • Sang-Jun Choi2
Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine201527:34

https://doi.org/10.1186/s40557-015-0080-1

Received: 2 May 2014

Accepted: 19 November 2015

Published: 30 December 2015

Abstract

Carcinogenicity of asbestos has been well established for decades and it has similar approval standards in most advanced countries based on a number of studies and international meetings. However, Korea has been lagging behind such international standards. In this study, we proposed the approval standards of an occupational cancer due to asbestos through intensive review on the Helsinki Criteria, post-Helsinki studies, job exposure matrix (JEM) based on the analysis of domestic reports and recognized occupational lung cancer cases in Korea. The main contents of proposed approval standards are as follows; In recognizing an asbestos-induced lung cancer, diagnosis of asbestosis should be based on CT. In addition, initial findings of asbestosis on CT should be considered. High Exposure industries and occupations to asbestos should be also taken into account in Korea An expert’s determination is warranted in case of a worker who has been concurrently exposed to other carcinogens, even if the asbestos exposure duration is less than 10 years. Determination of a larynx cancer due to asbestos exposure has the same approval standards with an asbestos-induced lung cancer. However, for an ovarian cancer, an expert’s judgment is necessary even if asbestosis, pleural plaque or pleural thickening and high concentration asbestos exposure are confirmed. Cigarette smoking status or the extent should not affect determination of an occupational cancer caused by asbestos as smoking and asbestos have a synergistic effect in causing a lung cancer and they are involved in carcinogenesis in a complicated manner.

Keywords

Asbestos Lung cancer Job exposure matrix Approval standard

Background

Carcinogenicity of asbestos has been well established for decades and it has similar approval standards of industrial accidents compensation in most advanced countries based on numerous studies and international meetings. However, Korea has been lagging behind such international standards. Approval standards of diseases due to asbestos in Korea have just followed Japanese standards of decades ago. They remained unchanged until 2013, without incorporating the latest asbestos studies. In 2013, new approval standards were proposed on enforcement decree of the Industrial Accident Compensation Insurance Act [1]. The new approval standards are as follows.

Lung cancer, malignant mesothelioma, larynx cancer or ovarian cancer due to asbestos exposure, corresponding to any of the followings: 1) Accompanied by pleural thickening including pleural plaque or asbestosis; 2) Asbestos bodies or asbestos fibers found in sputum; and 3) Exposed to asbestos for 10 years or more (but cases with an exposure duration shorter than 10 years are also included if recognized as a disease caused by asbestos, based on consideration of the level of exposure, exposure duration and period between exposure and disease development)

While the new standards cover a broader range of occupational cancers due to asbestos by including cancers at several sites as set out by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), the standards for the evidence of asbestos exposure are vague. So there are several challenging issues to determine an occupational cancer. First, whether to follow the International Labor Organization (ILO) classification or establish a separate standard for asbestosis diagnosis in the occupational cancer approval standards; Second, whether the presence of pleural plaque or pleural thickening alone qualifies as the evidence of asbestos exposure; Third, whether asbestos bodies or asbestos fibers found in sputum serve as the evidence of occupational asbestos exposure, and if they do, how many should be found; and finally in cases of asbestos exposure for 10 years or more, whether there is a difference between high concentration and low concentration exposure.

The first international expert meeting on ‘Asbestos, asbestosis, and cancer’ was convened in Helsinki in 1997 to discuss disorders in association with asbestos and to agree on the criteria for diagnosis and attribution with respect to asbestos [2, 3]. The group decided to name this document as the Helsinki Criteria. Subsequently, the Helsinki Criteria for asbestos-related lung cancers have been widely accepted and used for diagnosis and compensation in a number of countries including Germany, France, Finland and Australia.

These criteria have been highly controversial and an expert meeting in 2000 recommended making a radiographic diagnosis based on CT. Nevertheless, an intense debate is still ongoing for the occupational exposure standard of 25 fiber-years and histological standard. Several studies [4, 5] have reported an association between low concentration asbestos exposure and lung cancer, despite a rapid reduction in the asbestos use and exposure level with introduction of asbestos regulations in the 1980s. Against this backdrop, it is warranted to establish new approval standards of occupational cancers due to asbestos in Korea, based on international approval standards and the current research trend.

Carcinogenicity of asbestos

The IARC concluded in 1977 and 1987 that asbestos qualifies as a human carcinogen [6, 7]. Since asbestos was listed in the First Annual Report on Carcinogens, evidence of carcinogenicity of asbestos has been reevaluated by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the National Academy of Sciences in 2006 [8] and by IARC in 2009 [9]. IARC concluded that exposure to all forms of asbestos is associated with an increased risk of lung cancer and mesothelioma. In addition, it concluded that there was sufficient evidence from epidemiological studies that asbestos also caused cancer of the larynx and ovary, as well as limited evidence that it caused cancer of the colorectum, pharynx, and stomach. In general, these conclusions were consistent with the IOM evaluation [9].

Helsinki criteria and subsequent new trend

In the Helsinki Criteria [3] for occupational diseases associated with asbestos exposure, radiological findings of small opacities, grade 1/0, are usually regarded as an early stage of asbestosis for the purpose of screening. In terms of pleural disease, 80 ~ 90 % of the plaques that are radiologically well defined are attributable to occupational asbestos exposure. Low exposures (0.01 fibers/ml or less) from work-related, household, and natural sources may induce pleural plaques. For diffuse pleural thickening, higher exposure levels may be required. An occupational history of brief or low-level exposure should be considered sufficient for mesothelioma to be designated as occupationally related. A minimum of 10 years from the first exposure is required to attribute the mesothelioma to asbestos exposure, though in most cases the latency interval is longer. Smoking has no influence on the risk of mesothelioma. In the case of lung cancer, 1 year of heavy exposure (eg, manufacture of asbestos products, asbestos spraying, insulation work with asbestos materials, demolition of old buildings) or 5-10 years of moderate exposure (eg, construction, shipbuilding) may increase the lung cancer risk 2 fold or more. At least 10 years should have passed since the first asbestos exposure. A cumulative exposure of 25 fiber-years is estimated to increase the risk of lung cancer 2-fold. The presence of asbestosis is an indicator of high exposure. Asbestosis may also contribute some additional risk of lung cancer beyond that conferred by asbestos exposure alone. Heavy exposure, in the absence of radiologically diagnosed asbestosis, is sufficient to increase the risk of lung cancer. A 2-fold risk of lung cancer is related to retained fiber levels of 2 million amphibole fibers (>5 μm) per gram of dry lung tissue or 5 million amphibole fibers(>1 μm) per gram of dry lung tissue. This lung fiber concentration is approximately equal to 5000 to 15,000 asbestos bodies per gram of dry tissue, or 5 to 15 asbestos bodies per milliliter of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. When asbestos body concentrations are less than 10,000 asbestos bodies per gram of dry tissue, electron microscopic fiber analyses are recommended.

Use of CT in asbestos-related lung diseases

Several studies have announced the incidence of lung cancer is higher if there is no asbestosis on simple chest films. Wilkinson et al. found that after adjustments for gender, age, smoking history and area of referral, the odds ratio (OR) was 2.03 for 211 patients with a median ILO chest radiograph score of >1/0, whereas the OR was 1.56 in 738 patients with a score of <0/1 (95 % CI:1.02–2.39) [10].

The review pointed to a standardized mortality ratio (SMR) of 3.11 for lung cancer among Quebec miners and millers with small opacities in chest radiographs, a marker for asbestosis. However, the SMR was also elevated at 3.30 (95 % CI:2.32–4.62) in workers with radiographic abnormalities other than small opacities. Banks et al. point out that 11 out of the 37 in this category had a ‘large opacity’, not a feature of asbestosis, so that the SMR for lung cancer was apparently increased among those with radiological abnormalities other than asbestosis [11].

In a chest X-ray study on lung cancer in the Wittenoom cohort, Klerk et al demonstrated an increase in the relative risk (RR) with increasing cumulative exposure to asbestos, in the absence of radiographic asbestosis; the presence of asbestosis conferred an additional risk, but with a less steep slope for the dose-response line [12]. In a chest radiograph-based study of asbestos-cement workers in Ontario, Finkelstein found an increase in the RR in the absence of radiographic asbestosis [13].

High resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is already being used in many countries for diagnosis of lung diseases due to asbestos, due weaknesses of simple chest radiography, including a low diagnosis rate of asbestosis-related lung diseases and difficulty in early detection. Results from 2 studies of low dose CT use for lung cancer screening in workers with recent asbestos exposure support its usefulness, in particular, for screening of lung cancers [14]. CT is a diagnostic tool that is already being used in advanced countries. A recent study demonstrated remarkable usefulness of spiral CT in terms of sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value in early diagnosis of lung cancers (Table 1) [15, 16].
Table 1

Detection rate, sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of computed tomography (CT) screening sturdies [17]

Study

Lung cancer +

Lung cancer -

Total

Results

Sone et al, 1998 [15], Sone, 2000 [18]

 Initial screening in 1996

Detection rate 0.4 %

 CT +

25

305

330

Sensitivity 57 %

 CT -

19

5965

5984

Specificity 95 %

 Total

44

6270

6314

Predictive value 8 %

 First annual repeat in 1997

Detection rate 0.6 %

 CT +

28

169

197

Sensitivity 85 %

 CT -

5

4823

4828

Specificity 97 %

 Total

33

4992

5025

Predictive value 14 %

 Second annual repeat in 1998

Detection rate 0.2 %

 CT +

9

164

173

Sensitivity 100 %

 CT -

0

4867

4867

Specificity 97 %

 Total

9

5031

5040

Predictive value 5 %

Henschke et al, 1999 [19]

 Initial screening

Detection rate 2.7 %

 CT +

27

206

233

Sensitivity 100 %

 CT -

0

767

767

Specificity 79 %

 Total

27

973

1000

Predictive value 12 %

 First annual repeat

Detection rate 0.6 %

 CT +

6

24

30

Sensitivity 100 %

 CT -

0

970

970

Specificity 98 %

 Total

6

994

1000

Predictive value 20 %

Vehmas et al, 2000 [20]

 Initial screening

Detection rate 0.8 %

 CT +

5

60

65

Sensitivity 100 %

 CT -

0

537

537

Specificity 90 %

 Total

5

597

602

Predictive value 8 %

CT+ means the lung cancer was detected by CT

CT- means the lung cancer was not detected by CT

Lung Cancer + means the lung cancer was diagnosed by biopsy

Lung Cancer- means the lung cancer was not diagnosed by biopsy

Standards for asbestosis based on CT

For the diagnosis of cancer from asbestos, it is the evidence of exposure of asbestos to be diagnosed asbestosis or pleural thickening. Differentiating idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis from asbestosis is important because of legal and compensatory issues [21]. Asbestosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis have similar histopathologic appearances and similar radiographic manifestations.

Akira et al. [22] studied 80 patients with asbestosis and 80 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, using a large-scale cohort study of asbestos fiber workers in Sennan industrial area of Osaka region of Japan. Two chest radiologists who were unaware of the clinical and pathologic data, assessed the type and distribution of parenchymal and pleural abnormalities on high-resolution CT, and the final decisions on CT findings were reached by consensus. The results are as follows.
  1. A combination of subpleural dots and subpleural lines was found in 49 (61 %) of the 80 patients with asbestosis and in 10 (13 %) of the 80 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

     
  2. A combination of subpleural dots, subpleural lines, and parenchymal bands was found in 28 (35 %) of the 80 patients with asbestosis; however, this combination was found in only one (1 %) of the 80 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

     
  3. A combination of subpleural dots, subpleural lines, parenchymal bands, and mosaic perfusion was found in 17 (21 %) of the 80 patients with asbestosis and in none of the 80 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

     
  4. A combination of visible bronchioles, bronchiolectasis within consolidation, and honeycombing was found in 28 (35 %) of the 80 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and in only two (3 %) of the 80 patients with asbestosis.

     
  5. Parenchymal bands were found in three (21 %) of 14 patients with asbestosis without pleural disease and 35 (53 %) of 66 patients with asbestosis with pleural disease. Parenchymal bands were found in 33 (77 %) of 43 patients with diffuse pleural thickening.

     
  6. Fibrotic consolidation was found in 26 (60 %) of 43 patients with diffuse pleural thickening. Parenchymal bands and fibrotic consolidation were significantly more common in patients with diffuse pleural thickening.

     
  7. In patients with asbestosis without pleural disease, subpleural dots, subpleural lines, and mosaic perfusion were more common and bronchiolectasis within consolidation, visible intralobular bronchioles, and honeycombing were less common.

     
  8. Pleural disease was found in 66 (83 %) of 80 patients with asbestosis. Forty-six patients with asbestosis had pleural plaques, and 43 patients with asbestosis had diffuse pleural thickening. Twenty-three patients with asbestosis had both pleural plaques and pleural thickening. Pleural disease was found in three (4 %) of the 80 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. These three patients had diffuse pleural thickening and no pleural plaques. In these three patients, parenchymal bands were found.

     

Subpleural dotlike or branching opacities, subpleural curvilinear lines, mosaic perfusion and parenchymal bands were found in asbestosis patient with statistical significance (p < 0.001). Instead of dotlike opacities, visible intralobular bronchioles, bronchiolectasis within fibrotic consolidation and honeycombing were often found in patients with the idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (p < 0.0001). Ground-glass opacities, interlobular septal thickening, fibrotic consolidation and emphysema were common in both diseases.

Kim JS [23] reported that subpleural dotlike opacities and subpleural curvilinear opacities were more common in patients with asbestosis at an early stage by HRCT. With gradual progression, intralobular interstitial thickening or intralobular lines and interlobular septal thickening were found in patients with asbestosis by HRCT. And parenchymal bands, honeycombing appearances, ground-glass opacity(GGO) and traction bronchiectasis were found in patients with asbestosis at an advanced stage. GGO was mostly seen with reticular opacities, traction bronchiectasis and honeycombing appearances but was rarely observed alone so that GGO in asbestosis may suggest subtle fibrosis below the resolution of CT.

Asbestos exposure concentration

From the time of the first anecdotal reports on the occurrence of lung cancer in patients with asbestosis, there has existed an assumption that the processes of asbestos-mediated fibrogenesis and carcinogenesis are closely interwoven, leading to the postulation that the fibrosis is an obligate causal precursor for the cancer. Based on such assumption, fibrosis was recognized as a necessary phase preceding cancer. In reviewing 1930s case reports on this association, Nordmann suggested that the lung cancer has its origins in the bronchiolo-alveolar hyperplasia that accompanies late stage asbestosis, as in other forms of diffuse interstitial fibrosis. In effect, the fibrosis-cancer hypothesis postulates that asbestos cannot induce lung cancer by itself, but only through an intermediary and obligatory step of interstitial fibrosis (asbestos → asbestosis → cancer) [24].

Several studies have announced that even if there is no asbestosis in the lungs on chest X-ray, the risk of lung cancer is increased. Therefore, if there is no asbestosis in the lungs, standards of Helsinki (25fibers × ml-1 × years) have been used as asbestos exposure certification standards in many countries. However, recent papers criticized that 25 fiber-years is too high. In the investigation of the South Carolina asbestos textile workers, Dement et al. [25] found a SMR of 2.59 and a standardized risk ratio of 2.63 for white males (95 % CI:1.20–5.75) at exposures as low as the range of 2.7–6.8 fiber-years. The estimated cumulative exposure of 2.7–6.8 fiber-years would be in the range for the reference group. These findings indicate that for this cohort an increase in the lung cancer rate occurred at cumulative exposures insufficient for induction of histological asbestosis, so that this observation constitutes a falsification factor for the fibrosis-cancer hypothesis.

Gustavsson et al. [5] demonstrated that the relative risk of lung cancer increased monotonically with cumulative dose of asbestos in a population-based case-referent study (1038 cases and 2359 referents). The point estimates indicated a dose response curve that did not follow an exponential pattern, which would correspond to a straight line. The risk at the high concentration was lower than what was predicted with an exponentiated model but was closer to a linear model. The relative risk (exp(beta)) for the transformed variable was 1.494 (95 percent confidence interval (CI): 1.193, 1.871) per unit of exposure. The relative risk at a cumulative dose of x fiber-years was 1.494ln(x + 1). At 4 fiber-years, the risk was 1.494ln(4 + 1) = 1.90 (95 percent CI: 1.32–2.74).

Relation between smoking and asbestos in the causation of lung cancer

Cigarette smoke and asbestos are considered by most authorities to have a synergistic effect for lung cancer induction, and both are complex carcinogens that can affect multiple steps in the multistage process of carcinogenesis. The composite effect may range from less than additive to supramultiplicative, but the effect among insulation workers and as derived from case-referent studies approximates a multiplicative model, which has been accepted by many authorities for about the last 30 years. In either a multiplicative or a submultiplicative model, the combined effect of cigarette smoke and asbestos involves an interactive effect whereby the joint effect is greater than the sum of the two separate effects [26].

At least four mechanisms have been proposed as potential explanations for the synergy between cigarette smoke and asbestos. (1) Cigarette smoke may facilitate penetration of asbestos fibers into bronchial walls [27]. (2) Carcinogens in cigarette smoke such as benzopyrene may be adsorbed onto asbestos fibers with subsequent delivery of the carcinogens into cells at high concentration [28]. (3) Cigarette smoke may interfere with the clearance of asbestos from the lungs. Churg and Stevens recorded elevated concentrations of asbestos fibers in the airway tissues of smokers in comparison to non-smokers, for both amosite (~6-fold) and chrysotile (~50-fold), especially for short fibers [29]. (4) Free fatty acids in cigarette smoke may translocate iron into cell membranes, with enhancement of cell sensitivity to oxidants such as active oxygen species [30].

Relation between larynx cancer and lung cancer

Committee on Asbestos [31] reported that there is a dose-response relationship between larynx cancer and asbestos exposure based on 9 large-scale cohort studies and meta analysis of cohort and case-control studies. It also noted that larynx cancer and lung cancer have the same pathogenesis and effect of smoking. As the larynx is anatomically equivalent to the lungs, asbestos-induced pathogenesis of larynx cancer is the same as that of lung cancer: the larynx provides a direct route of passage for asbestos fibers as the lungs; asbestos fibers are accumulated in the larynx in the same manner and cause inflammation or damage; the larynx consists of squamous cells as the lungs; and larynx cancer results from squamous metaplasia and dysplasia. In counties that recognize a larynx cancer as an occupational disease, its approval standards are the same as the criteria for a lung cancer.

Approval standards in other countries

  1. 1)
    Approval standards in Japan (Tables 2, 3) [32].
    Table 2

    Approval standards

    Disease

    Requirements for recognition

    Asbestosis (including complications of asbestosis)

    A disease occurring in a worker exposed to asbestos, corresponding to either or according to the pneumoconiosis management classification (management 1 ~ 4) under the Pneumoconiosis Act. In addition, the occupational disease is judged after determination of the pneumoconiosis management classification by the prefectural labor minister, in principle.

    · Management 4 asbestosis (pneumoconiosis due to asbestosis)

    Complications of Management 2, Management 3, or Management 4 asbestosis1

    Malignant mesothelioma

    (1) Malignant mesothelioma in the pleura, peritoneum, pericardium or tunica vaginalis testis of a worker exposed to asbestos; it is recognized as an occupational disease in case the chest X-ray images (type 1~4) show asbestosis findings as specified in the Pneumoconiosis Act or the work period with asbestos exposure corresponds to either or .

    However, cases with less than 10 years since the first occupational asbestos exposure are excluded.

    Type 1 or higher asbestosis findings in chest X-ray images

    Engaged in work involving asbestos exposure for at least 1 year

    ※ As it is challenging to diagnose malignant mesothelioma, it is important to confirm malignant mesothelioma with pathology results but in case pathology results are not available, the case should be judged by comprehensively considering clinical test results, imaging findings, clinical course and differentiation with other diseases.

    Lung cancer

    'Primary lung cancer' in an worker exposed to asbestos; it is recognized as an occupational disease if corresponding to any of to . However, cases with less than 10 years since the first occupational asbestos exposure are excluded.

    · Presence of asbestosis findings2

    Pleural plaque findings + engaged in work involving asbestos exposure for at least 10 years3

    Broad range of pleural plaque findings4 + engaged in work involving asbestos exposure for at least 1 year

    Findings of asbestos bodies or asbestos fibers5 + engaged in work involving asbestos exposure for at least 1 year

    Complication of diffuse pleural thickening

    Engaged in 3 specific types of work6 + engaged in work involving asbestos exposure for at least 5 years7

    Positive asbestos pleural fluid

    As pleural fluid may be present with various causes (including tuberculous pleurisy and rheumatoid pleurisy) other than asbestos, diagnosis of positive asbestos pleural fluid should rule out the cause of pleural fluid other than asbestos. Since it may make its diagnosis highly challenging, recognition of an occupational disease is judged in discussion between the Labor Standards Inspection Office Director and the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare Main Office.

    Diffuse pleural change

    Diffuse pleural thickening present in a worker exposed to asbestos; the thickness should meet the following standards and be accompanied by apparent respiratory dysfunction. It is recognized as an occupational disease if the work period involving asbestos exposure is at least 3 months (meeting all of ~ as follows).

    Engaged in work involving asbestos exposure for at least 3 years

    Apparent respiratory dysfunction: Vital capacity (%VC) of < 60 %

    Pleural thickening beyond a certain extent: On chest CT images

    Unilateral thickening: Involving at least 1/2 of the chest wall

    Bilateral thickening: Involving at least 1/4 of the chest wall

    1Complications refer to the followings. Pulmonary tuberculosis, Tuberculous pleurisy, Secondary bronchitis, Secondary bronchiectasis, Secondary pneumothorax

    2Type 1 or higher asbestosis on chest X-ray images as specified in the Pneumoconiosis Act

    3In case of asbestos product manufacturing, the work period since 1996 is calculated as 1/2 of the actual work period

    4Broad range of pleural plaque refers to the case that apparent opacities are recognized that can be judged as a pleural plaque on chest X-ray images, the opacities are confirmed as a pleural plaque on chest CT images, and the pleural plaque accounts for 1/4 of the chest wall on chest CT images

    5One of the followings are required for findings of asbestos bodies or asbestos fibers

    Asbestos bodies of at least 5,000 per 1 g of dry lung tissue

    Asbestos bodies of at least 5 in 1 ml of bronchial alveolar lavage fluid

    Asbestos fibers (>5μm) of at least 2 million per 1 g of dry lung tissue

    Asbestos fibers (>1μm) of at least 5 million per 1 g of dry lung tissue

    Presence of asbestos bodies or asbestos fibers on a lung tissue section

    6 "3 specific types of work" refers to asbestos spun product manufacturing, asbestos cement product manufacturing, and asbestos fit-up work

    7 "Work period" refers the period of working in 1 of the above 3 types of work or their total period. However, for the work period after 1996, the period is calculated as 1/2 of the actual work period

    Table 3

    Definition of work involving asbestos exposure in the standards for industrial accident compensation

    (1) Extraction, taking out or crushing of asbestos-containing ores or rocks or other asbestos refining-related work in an asbestos mine or its attached facilities

    (2) Containing or transporting of the asbestos material in a warehouse

    (3) Asbestos product manufacturing

    (4) Asbestos spray

    (5) Covering for insulation or heat insulation using a heat-resistant asbestos product or its repair

    (6) Asbestos product processing, such as cutting

    (7) Repair or demolition of a building or its attached facilities in which an asbestos product is used as a clothing material or construction material

    (8) Repair or demolition of a ship or car in which an asbestos product was used

    (9) Handling of a mineral (such as talc) containing asbestos as an impurity

    In addition, work involving asbestos dust exposure at a level equivalent to or higher than the above types of work or indirect exposure around the above types of work is also applicable

     
  2. 2)

    Approval standards in France [33].

     
Diseases covered by compensation are diseases specified as an occupational disease due to asbestos under social security-related legislation, diseases commonly recognized as being attributable to asbestos, cases of exposure to asbestos inside the French territory for which the causality with asbestos exposure is recognized by the Commission d’evaluationdes circonstances de l’exposition a l’miante(CECEA). Cases that are actually recognized are mostly asbestosis, positive pleural lesion, primary lung cancer and malignant mesothelioma. The Table 4 is asbestos-related diseases set out in the occupational disease list.
Table 4

Asbestos-related diseases in France

Occupational disease No

Disease

030A

Asbestosis: lung fibrosis diagnosed with X-ray images, irrespective of respiratory function test findings

030B

Positive pleural disease (unilateral/bilateral pericardial plaque or pleural plaque with or without calcification confirmed with tomograms, pleuritis, diffuse or localized thickening of the pleura)

030C

Malignant bronchial lesion with a pulmonary parenchymal lesion or positive pleural disease

030D

Primary malignant mesothelioma in the pleura, peritoneum or pericardium

030E

Other primary pleural mass

030Bis

Primary lung cancer

Of above diseases, in case of malignant mesothelioma and pericardial plaque or pleural plaque, asbestos exposure is estimated according to the ‘list of diseases for which asbestos exposure is proven with confirmation’ so that diagnosis in itself may qualify for compensation. For other diseases, causality with asbestos exposure should be demonstrated, and it is the responsibility of the CECEA. CECEA should include 2 members with professional knowledge on the assessment of risks resulting from asbestos exposure, 2 industrial medicine specialist or experts with professional knowledge on respiratory disorders or pneumoconiosis, and they are nominated by the Management Committee that is in charge of basic rights in the Fonds d’Indemnisation des Victimes de l’Amiante(FIVA). The Table 5 presents the diagnosis and work-relatedness assessment standards for asbestos-related lung cancer, malignant mesothelioma and pleural plaque.
Table 5

Approval standards of asbestos-related diseases in France [34]

 

Medical diagnosis standards

Asbestos dust exposure standards

Latent duration

Asbestosis

Diagnosis of lung fibrosis with specific radiographic characteristics, irrespective of changes in pulmonary function test findings

2 years (List of directly related jobs)

Liability period: Up to 35 years after the end of exposure

Malignant mesothelioma

Histology; if it is insufficient, clinical course and radiological diagnosis

Routine exposure without a minimum period

Up to 40 years after the end of exposure

Lung cancer

Histology; if it is insufficient, clinical course and radiological diagnosis

10 year exposure + limited job group (work directly related to an asbestos-containing material(ACM), insulation using ACM, removal of an asbestos-containing insulation material, repair of a building in which asbestos is used, cutting and grinding of a material containing asbestos, shipbuilding and ship repair, manufacturing of an asbestos-containing friction material, maintenance performed with an asbestos-containing equipment)

Up to 40 years after the end of exposure

Pleural plaque

Calcification or pleural plaque in the pericardium or pleura, confirmed with CT

Routine exposure without a minimum period

Up to 40 years after the end of exposure

  1. 3)

    Approval standards in Germany

     
The Table 6 presents the diagnosis and work-relatedness assessment standards for asbestos-related lung cancer, malignant mesothelioma and pleural plaque in Germany.
Table 6

Approval standards of asbestos-related diseases in Germany [34]

 

Medical diagnosis standards

Asbestos dust exposure standards

Latent duration

Asbestosis

Lung fibrosis validated with X-ray (ILO standards) or CT/HRCT

Several years

At least 10 years

Malignant mesothelioma

Proven diagnosis (histopathology and radiography, CT is preferred)

Even low level exposure is recognized

At least 10 years, in general

Lung cancer

Asbestosis-related lung cancer (even histologically mild asbestosis is sufficient)

Exposed to 25 fibers/ml-year

At least 10 years

Major changes in the pleura due to asbestos

Pleural plaque

Diagnosis with radiography, CT or histopathology

Even low level exposure is recognized

-

Exposure status in Korea

In order to evaluate the exposure status of asbestos, we developed a General Population based Korean Job-Exposure Matrix (JEM) using domestic quantitative datasets on the exposure to asbestos. Available data were obtained from previous exposure-related study reports and the work environment monitoring data under Article 42 of the Industrial Safety and Health Act. Domestic literature mostly focused on the primary asbestos exposure group between 1984 and 1996 and therefore, it is possible to construct the JEM for 1984 ~ 1996 by using these reports. In case of the work environment monitoring data, the Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency (KOSHA) database (DB) was established in 2002. However, as there is no data prior to 2002, this study used analysis data for 1995 ~ 2006 obtained from Seoul National University Graduate School of Public Health(SNU GSPH), an institution that has been analyzing most airborne asbestos samples collected during work environment monitoring. KOSHA DB was used for the work environment monitoring data of 2005 ~ 2008.

To build the JEM, exposure groups in collected data were reclassified by standardized industry and occupation codes. For industry codes, the 9th Revised Korean Standard Industrial Classification (KSIC) was used in order to reflect industrial characteristics of Korea as well as to ensure international comparability. For occupation codes, the 6th Korean Standard Classification of Occupations (KSCO) was used to reflect the International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO-08) finalized at the end of 2007. Two trained industrial hygienists classified exposure groups from collected data according to standard industry and occupation codes.
  1. 1)
    According to the established JEM, 88 industries and 75 occupations involved the exposure to asbestos (Tables 7, 8). By period, the highest exposure occurred in ‘knitting and weaving machine operators’ working at ‘manufacture of asbestos, mineral wools and other similar products’ with arithmetic mean concentration of 7.48 f/m in the 1980s, ‘wood and paper related machine operators’ of ‘manufacture of other articles of paper and paperboard not elsewhere classified’ with 3.5 f/m in the 1990s and ‘detergents production machine operators’ of ‘manufacture of surface-active agents’ with 2.45 f/m in the 2000s. Detailed information of JEM will be scheduled to be described in another article.
    Table 7

    Asbestos exposure levels by industries in Korea

    Industrya

    <1990

    1991 ~ 1999

    2000 ~ 2008

    Total

    Foamed Plastic Products

     

    5.12

     

    5.12

    Other Articles of Paper and Paperboard n.e.c.b

     

    3.54

     

    3.54

    Surface-Active Agents

      

    2.45

    2.45

    Asbestos, Mineral Wools and Other Similar Products

    7.48

    0.91

    0.02

    2.04

    Cast of Iron and Steel

    1.54

      

    1.54

    Weaving of Man-Made Fiber Fabrics

     

    1.52

     

    1.52

    Moulding Patterns, Moulds and Industrial Patterns

      

    1.51

    1.51

    Sale of Motor Vehicle New Parts and Accessories

    1.41

      

    1.41

    Cutting, Shaping and Finishing of Stone

      

    1.18

    1.18

    Paperboard Boxes and Containers

      

    0.98

    0.98

    Industrial Un-vulcanized Rubber Products

      

    0.96

    0.96

    Other Paper and Paperboard

     

    0.00

    1.61

    0.81

    Spinning of Wool

      

    0.74

    0.74

    Repair Services of Motor Vehicles Specializing in Parts

    0.93

    0.56

     

    0.68

    Tires and Tubes

      

    0.66

    0.66

    Synthetic Resin and Other Plastic Materials

     

    0.04

    0.83

    0.63

    Stone Products for Construction

    0.46

    0.74

     

    0.60

    Abrasive Articles

     

    0.56

     

    0.56

    Taps, Valves and Similar Products

      

    0.56

    0.56

    Other Parts and Accessories for Motor Vehicles n. e. c.

      

    0.54

    0.54

    Synthetic Rubber

      

    0.47

    0.47

    General Repair Services of Motor Vehicles

      

    0.44

    0.44

    Other Parts and Accessories for Motor Vehicles n. e. c.

    0.42

      

    0.42

    Other Insulated Wire and Cable

      

    0.36

    0.36

    General Paints and Similar Products

      

    0.32

    0.32

    Other Maintenance and Repair Services of General Machinery

    0.23

      

    0.23

    Other Structural Metal Products

      

    0.21

    0.21

    Electric Lamps and Electric Bulbs

      

    0.20

    0.20

    Sections for Ships

     

    0.06

    0.24

    0.18

    General Construction

     

    0.17

     

    0.17

    Insulated Codes Sets and Other Conductors for Electricity

      

    0.12

    0.12

    Research and Experimental Development On Other Engineering

      

    0.12

    0.12

    Sanitary Paper Products

      

    0.12

    0.12

    Other Special Purpose Machinery, n.e.c.

      

    0.11

    0.11

    Synthetic Rubber and of Plastics in Primary Forms

      

    0.11

    0.11

    Paper Sacks and Paper Bags

      

    0.11

    0.11

    Rubber Products

      

    0.11

    0.11

    Aircraft Parts and Accessories

     

    0.095

     

    0.095

    Parts and Accessories for Motor Vehicles and Engines

     

    0.183

    0.001

    0.092

    Building of Steel Ships

     

    0.076

     

    0.076

    Special Yarns and Tire Cord Fabrics

     

    0.073

     

    0.073

    Other Unclassified Non-metallic Minerals n. e. c.

     

    0.069

     

    0.069

    Other Refractory Ceramic Products

     

    0.064

     

    0.064

    Adhesives and Gelatin

      

    0.055

    0.055

    Hot Rolled, Drawn and Extruded Iron or Steel Products

     

    0.040

     

    0.040

    Apartment Building Construction

     

    0.039

     

    0.039

    Parts and Accessories for Motor Engines

     

    0.073

    0.002

    0.038

    Heat Treatment of Metals

      

    0.034

    0.034

    Broadcasting and Wireless Telecommunication Apparatuses

     

    0.028

     

    0.028

    Other Footwear

      

    0.026

    0.026

    Agricultural and Forestry Machinery

     

    0.046

    0.003

    0.024

    Other Sound Equipment

     

    0.022

     

    0.022

    General Electric Lighting Fixture

      

    0.020

    0.020

    Pharmaceutical Goods Other Than Medicaments

      

    0.016

    0.016

    Waste Treatment Services

      

    0.016

    0.016

    Electric Motors and Generators

     

    0.014

     

    0.014

    Supporting, Railway Transport Activities

      

    0.014

    0.014

    Cellulose Fiber Cement Products

      

    0.013

    0.013

    Disposal of Hazardous Waste

      

    0.013

    0.013

    Other Plastic Products n.e.c.

     

    0.012

     

    0.012

    Other Rubber Products n.e.c.

     

    0.012

     

    0.012

    Passenger Motor Vehicles

     

    0.023

    0.000

    0.012

    Other Fertilizers and Nitrogen Compounds

      

    0.012

    0.012

    Other Work trucks, Lifting and Handling Equipment

     

    0.009

     

    0.009

    Saws, Saw Blades and Interchangeable Tools

     

    0.009

     

    0.009

    Other Basic Iron and Steel

     

    0.008

     

    0.008

    Machinery for Food, Beverage and Tobacco Processing

     

    0.008

     

    0.008

    Forging of Metal

      

    0.008

    0.008

    Packaging Plastics and Shipping Containers

     

    0.008

     

    0.008

    All Other Chemical Products n.e.c.

      

    0.007

    0.007

    Metal Pressed and Stamped Products

     

    0.007

     

    0.007

    All Other Glass and its Products n.e.c.

      

    0.007

    0.007

    Pottery and Ceramic Household or Ornamental Ware

      

    0.006

    0.006

    Engraving, Cutting and Similar Processing of Metals or Other Materials

      

    0.006

    0.006

    Other Electronic Valves, Tubes and Electronic Components n.e.c.

     

    0.011

    0.002

    0.006

    Pulp

      

    0.006

    0.006

    Broadcasting via Cable, Satellite and Other Broadcasting

     

    0.005

     

    0.005

    Hazardous Waste Collection

      

    0.005

    0.005

    Other Domestic Electric Appliances

     

    0.005

     

    0.005

    Other Electric Motors, Generators and Transformers

      

    0.004

    0.004

    General Hospitals

      

    0.004

    0.004

    Electric Power Generation

      

    0.004

    0.004

    Powder Metallurgic Products

      

    0.003

    0.003

    Basic Organic Petrochemicals

     

    0.010

    0.000

    0.003

    Pumps and Compressors

      

    0.003

    0.003

    Industrial Process Control Equipment

      

    0.002

    0.002

    Residential Property Management

      

    0.002

    0.002

    Other Manufacturing n.e.c.

      

    0.001

    0.001

    Total

    1.78

    0.41

    0.25

    0.39

    athe 9th Korean Standard Industrial Classification code name

    bnot elsewhere classified

    All data were presented arithmetic mean (f//m)

    Table 8

    Asbestos exposure levels by occupations in Korea

    Occupationa

    <1990

    1991 ~ 1999

    2000 ~ 2008

    Total

    Wood and Paper Related Machine Operators n.e.c.b

     

    3.54

     

    3.54

    Knitting and Weaving Machine Operators

    7.48

    1.34

     

    3.39

    Detergents Production Machine Operators

      

    2.45

    2.45

    Paper Products Production Machine Operators

      

    1.61

    1.61

    Metal Casting Machine Operators

    1.54

      

    1.54

    Weaving Machine Operators

     

    1.52

     

    1.52

    Store Salespersons n.e.c.

    1.41

      

    1.41

    Construction Stonemason

      

    1.18

    1.18

    Plastic Products Production Machine Operators n.e.c.

     

    1.72

    0.06

    1.06

    Automobile Paint Mechanics

      

    0.96

    0.96

    Tire and Rubber Products Production Machine Operators n.e.c.

      

    0.96

    0.96

    Painting Machine Operators n.e.c.

      

    0.78

    0.78

    Tire Production Machine Operators

      

    0.66

    0.66

    Mineral Ore and Stone Products Processing Machine Operators

    0.46

    0.74

     

    0.60

    Brightener Production Machine Operators

     

    0.56

     

    0.56

    Machine Tool Operators

      

    0.56

    0.56

    Automobile Mechanics

    0.93

    0.56

    0.00

    0.51

    Die and Mold Makers

     

    0.01

    0.75

    0.51

    Paper Box and Envelope Products Processing Machine Operators

      

    0.45

    0.45

    Textile Processing Machine Operators

     

    0.07

    0.74

    0.41

    Chemical Material Grinding and Mixing Machine Operators

      

    0.35

    0.35

    Chemical Material Distiller and Reactor Operators

      

    0.35

    0.35

    Rubber Products Production Machine Operators

     

    0.01

    0.47

    0.24

    Automobile Parts Assemblers n.e.c

    0.42

    0.18

    0.03

    0.21

    Metal Product Painting Machine Operators

      

    0.21

    0.21

    Audio-Visual Equipment Assemblers

     

    0.02

    0.36

    0.19

    Elementary Workers in Construction

     

    0.17

     

    0.17

    Ship Assemblers

    0.23

    0.04

    0.24

    0.16

    Ship Mechanics

     

    0.13

     

    0.13

    Engineering Research Managers

      

    0.12

    0.12

    Sanitary Paper Products Processing Machine Operators

      

    0.12

    0.12

    Industry Machinery Assemblers

      

    0.11

    0.11

    Electrical Products Production Equipment Operators

     

    0.01

    0.20

    0.10

    Aircraft Assemblers

     

    0.09

     

    0.09

    Nonmetal Products Related Production Machine Operators n.e.c.

     

    0.07

     

    0.07

    Chemical Material Processing Machine Operators

      

    0.06

    0.06

    Electrical Equipment Assemblers

     

    0.01

    0.07

    0.05

    Brick and Tile Moulding Machine Operators

     

    0.05

     

    0.05

    Agricultural Machinery Assemblers

     

    0.05

     

    0.05

    Construction Related Technical Worker

     

    0.04

     

    0.04

    Automobile Engine Assemblers

     

    0.07

    0.00

    0.04

    Railroad Train Mechanics

      

    0.04

    0.04

    Metal Heat Treatment Furnace Operators

      

    0.03

    0.03

    Electrical, Electronic Parts and Products Assembler n.e.c.

     

    0.03

     

    0.03

    Textile and Leather Related Workers

      

    0.03

    0.03

    Rolling Mill Operators

     

    0.02

     

    0.02

    Cement and Mineral Products Production Machine Operators

      

    0.02

    0.02

    Pharmaceutical Products Production Machine Operators

      

    0.02

    0.02

    Recycling Machine and Incinerator Operators

      

    0.02

    0.02

    Cement and Lime Production Related Machine Operators

      

    0.01

    0.01

    Recycling Machine and Incinerator Operator n.e.c

      

    0.01

    0.01

    Automobile Assemblers

     

    0.02

    0.00

    0.01

    Construction Carpenters

      

    0.01

    0.01

    General Machinery Assemblers

     

    0.009

     

    0.009

    Ore and Metal Furnace Operators

     

    0.008

     

    0.008

    Food Processing Related Machine Operating Occupations

     

    0.008

     

    0.008

    Plastic Catapulting Machine Operators

     

    0.008

     

    0.008

    Pottery and Porcelain Products Production Machine Operators

      

    0.006

    0.006

    Electronic Parts Production Equipment Operators

     

    0.011

    0.002

    0.006

    Paper Pulp Plant Operators

      

    0.006

    0.006

    Chemical Products Production Machine Operators n.e.c.

     

    0.010

    0.004

    0.006

    Telecommunication and Broadcast Transmission Equipment Technicians

     

    0.005

     

    0.005

    Elementary Workers in Construction

      

    0.005

    0.005

    Aircompressor Operators

      

    0.005

    0.005

    Paper Processing Machine Operators

     

    0.005

     

    0.005

    Forge Hammersmiths and Forging Press Workers

      

    0.004

    0.004

    Electrical Parts Production Equipment Operators

      

    0.004

    0.004

    Power Generation and Distribution Equipment Operators

      

    0.004

    0.004

    Railway Transport Clerks

      

    0.003

    0.003

    Glass Production and Processing Machine Operators n.e.c.

      

    0.003

    0.003

    Metal Processing Machine Operators n.e.c.

      

    0.003

    0.003

    Health, Social Welfare and Religion Related Occupations

      

    0.003

    0.003

    Cooling and Heating System Operators

      

    0.002

    0.002

    Lathe Machine Operators

      

    0.002

    0.002

    Railroad Train and Electric Train Mechanics

      

    0.002

    0.002

    Total

    1.78

    0.41

    0.25

    0.39

    athe 9th Korean Standard Industrial Classification code name

    bnot elsewhere classified

    All data were presented arithmetic mean (f//m)

     

Cases in Korea

Analyzed cases in Korea included 179 cases of lung cancer from the epidemiological survey between 1994 and 2011 by KOSHA, and 31 cases of lung cancer from the Occupational Lung Diseases Institute, after excluding 11 cases of 2012 and 9 cases of malignant mesothelioma confirmed between 2004 and 2011, from 51 cases between 2004 and 2012.

For KOSHA cases, the study by Ahn YS was used, and for the Occupational Lung Diseases Institute cases, the same methodology was applied and data from 2 sources were pooled for statistical analysis.

The incidence of occupational lung cancer in Korea was 0.11 per 100,000 and it was 0.06 for lung cancer due to asbestos. The occupational lung cancer incidence is increasing every year, as the case with the lung cancer due to asbestos. Lung cancer due to asbestos represents approximately 60 % of the entire occupational lung cancer cases (Table 9).
Table 9

Recognition per 100,000 workers insured of lung cancer in Korea

Recognized year

Insured population

Lung cancer case

Asbestos-related lung cancer case

Proportion of Asbestos related lung cancer

Lung cancer incidence rate

Asbestos-related lung cancer incidence rate

 

A

B

C

C/B*100

B/A*106

C/A*106

1994

7,273,132

1

1

100

0.01

0.01

1995

7,893,727

2

1

50.0

0.03

0.01

1996

8,156,894

5

1

20.0

0.06

0.01

1997

8,236,641

0

0

 

0

0

1998

7,582,479

2

0

0.0

0.03

0

1999

7,441,160

5

3

60.0

0.07

0.04

2000

9,485,557

9

3

33.3

0.09

0.03

2001

10,581,186

8

6

75.0

0.08

0.06

2002

10,571,279

11

4

36.3

0.10

0.04

2003

10,599,345

16

9

56.2

0.15

0.08

2004

10,473,091

16

9

56.2

0.15

0.09

2005

11,059,194

14

6

42.8

0.13

0.05

2006

11,688,800

11

4

36.3

0.09

0.03

2007

12,528,884

22

15

68.2

0.18

0.12

2008

13,489,990

21

13

62.0

0.16

0.10

2009

13,884,929

12

7

58.3

0.09

0.05

2010

14,198,757

29

17

58.6

0.20

0.12

2011

14,362,378

26

18

69.2

0.18

0.13

From the Table 10, men accounted for 95 % of occupational lung cancer patients and the mean age at diagnosis was 53 ~ 55 years. Given that those aged 60 ~ 65 years represent for the highest proportion of asbestos-induced lung cancer patients in Japan, this age range is relatively young. It is speculated to be due to the tendency that workers diagnosed with lung cancer after retirement did not apply for an industrial accident, rather than indicating early detection of lung cancer. Of all lung cancer patients, smokers accounted for 56.7 %. By histology, adenocarcinoma was the most frequent, followed by squamous cell cancer and small cell cancer.
Table 10

General characteristics of the study subjects

Variables

 

No

Percent

Diagnostic year

1993-1995

9

4.3

1996-2000

29

13.8

2001-2005

61

29.0

2006-2011

111

52.9

Gender

Men

199

94.8

Women

11

5.2

Age at diagnosis (years)

30-39

7

3.3

40-49

56

26.7

50-59

102

48.6

60-69

38

18.1

70-79

7

3.3

Mean ± S.D.a

53.5 ± 8.2

 

Mean ± S.D.b

55.4 ± 9.1

Smoking status

Current-smoker

93

44.3

Ex-smoker

26

12.4

Non-smoker

71

33.8

Unknown-

20

9.5

Mean pack-years of current and ex-smokera

18.2 ± 8.6

Mean pack-years of current and ex-smokerb

21.5 ± 13.4

Pathologic findings

Non-small cell ca

Adenocarcinoma

77

36.7

Squamous cell ca

50

23.8

Large cell ca

1

0.5

Unclassified

14

6.7

 

subtotal

142

67.6

Small cell ca

21

10

Unknown

47

22.4

aValues are given as mean ± S.D. of lung cancer-asbestos exposure case report data in KOSHA; S.D. is the abbreviation of standard deviation

bValues are given as mean ± S.D. of lung cancer-asbestos exposure case report data in occupational lung diseases institute (2004-2011)

In terms of exposure characteristics of cases (Table 11), asbestos was a key carcinogen, accounting for 50 % of causative carcinogens, and the exposure duration was approximately 20 years. The latent duration was 23 ~ 26 years, indicating that lung cancer is diagnosed approximately 3 ~ 6 years after the end of exposure. Eighty-seven lung cancer cases were due to exposure to a single carcinogen and 92 cases involved exposure to multiple carcinogens. In case of lung cancer due to asbestos, the exposure duration was approximately 20 years, the latent duration was about 24 years, smokers accounted for approximately 60 %, and adenocarcinoma was the most frequent histology for KOSHA cases (Table 12). For Occupational Lung Diseases Institute data, the exposure duration was approximately 23 years, the latent duration was about 27 years, smokers accounted for 77 %, and adenocarcinoma was the most frequent histology. Eleven cases were due to exposure to a single carcinogen and 20 cases involved exposure to multiple carcinogens (Table 13).
Table 11

Exposure characteristics of the study subjects

Variables

 

No

Percent

Major carcinogen caused lung cancer

Asbestos

105

50

Crystaline silica

42

20

Cr6+

26

12.4

Welding fume including Cr6+,nickel

18

8.6

DEEa

5

2.4

Rubber dust

2

1.0

CTPVb & PAHc

3

1.4

Coke oven emission (COE)

1

0.5

Year at first exposure

-1969

12

5.7

1970-1979

73

34.8

1980-1989

91

43.3

1990-1999

33

15.7

2000-

1

0.5

Exposure duration(years)

<10

12

5.7

≥10 and < 20

84

40

≥20 and < 30

92

43.8

≥30

22

10.5

Mean ± S.D.d

19.8 ± 9.9

Mean ± S.D.e

22.5 ± 8.4

Latent duration(years)

<10

5

2.4

≥10 and < 20

62

29.5

≥20 and < 30

95

45.2

≥30

48

22.9

Mean ± S.D.d

23.0 ± 9.9

Mean ± S.D.e

26.6 ± 7.5

aDEE is the abbreviation of diesel engine exhaust; bCTPV is coal tar pitch volatile; cPAH is polyaromatic hydrocarbons

dValues are given as mean ± S.D. of lung cancer-asbestos exposure case report data in KOSHA; S.D. is the abbreviation of standard deviation

eValues are given as mean ± S.D. of lung cancer-asbestos exposure case report data in occupational lung diseases institute (2004-2011)

Table 12

The durations of exposure and latency, smoking status and pathologic types of compensated lung cancers by the kinds of main carcinogens in KOSHA, Korea (1994-2011)

Exposed substances (No. of lung cancer)

 

Exposure duration (years)

Latent duration (years)

Smoking status

No. (%)

Type of pathology

No. (%)

Asbestos (87)

Mean ± S.D.a

20.1 ± 7.3

24.0 ± 7.7

Current-smoker

37(47.4)

Adenocarcinoma

34(57.6)

Median

21.0

24.0

Ex-smoker

10(12.8)

Squamous cell ca

15(25.4)

Minb-Maxc

2.5-38

7-40

Never smoker

31(39.7)

Others

10(17.0)

Crystalline silica (42)

Mean ± S.D.a

19.1 ± 7.0

24.4 ± 10.8

Current-smoker

13(37.1)

Adenocarcinoma

12(48.0)

Median

18.3

21.5

Ex-smoker

6(17.1)

Squamous cell ca

10(40.0)

Minb-Maxc

7-32

7-61

Never smoker

16(45.7)

Others

3(12.0)

Cr6+ & welding fume (40)

Mean ± S.D.a

20.2 ± 7.2

21.5 ± 7.2

Current-smoker

20(54.1)

Adenocarcinoma

12(44.4)

Median

20.0

21

Ex-smoker

3(8.1)

Squamous cell ca

11(40.7)

Minb-Maxc

9-41

9-41

Never smoker

14(37.8)

Others

4(14.8)

Others (10)

Mean ± S.D.a

18.1 ± 4.7

18.6 ± 4.5

Current-smoker

4(40.0)

Adenocarcinoma

6(66.7)

Median

16.5

17.0

Ex-smoker

2(20.0)

Squamous cell ca

2(22.2)

Minb-Maxc

15-16

15-16

Never smoker

4(40.0)

Others

1(11.1)

Single exposure (87)

Mean ± S.D.a

19.6 ± 6.7

22.8 ± 8.0

Current-smoker

32(43.8)

Adenocarcinoma

22(46.8)

Median

20.0

22.0

Ex-smoker

6(8.2)

Squamous cell ca

16(34.0)

Minb-Maxc

2.5-35.0

7-41.0

Never smoker

35(47.9)

Others

9(12.3)

Co-exposure (92)

Mean ± S.D.a

20.1 ± 7.3

23.6 ± 8.8

Current-smoker

42(48.3)

Adenocarcinoma

42(57.5)

Median

20.0

23.0

Ex-smoker

15(17.2)

Squamous cell ca

22(30.1)

Minb-Maxc

2.5-41.0

7.0-61.0

Never smoker

30(34.5)

Others

9(12.3)

aS.D. is the abbreviation of standard deviation; bMin is minimal value; cMax is maximal value

Table 13

The durations of exposure and latency, smoking status and pathologic types of compensated lung cancers by the kinds of main carcinogens in Occupational lung diseases institute, Korea (2004-2011)

Exposed substances (No. of lung cancer)

 

Exposure duration (years)

Latent duration (years)

Smoking status

No. (%)

Type of pathology

No. (%)

Asbestos (30)

Mean ± S.D.a

22.7 ± 8.4

26.5 ± 7.6

Current-smoker

18(60)

Adenocarcinoma

12(40)

Median

22

24.5

Ex-smoker

5(16.7)

Squamous cell ca

12(40)

Minb-Maxc

10-50

16-50

Never smoker

6(20)

Others

6(20)

Crystalline silica (2)

Mean ± S.D.a

22 ± 11.3

25.5 ± 13.4

Current-smoker

2(100)

Adenocarcinoma

1(50)

Median

22

25.5

Ex-smoker

0(0)

Squamous cell ca

1(50)

Minb-Maxc

14-30

16-35

Never smoker

0(0)

Others

0(0)

Cr6+ & welding fume

(11)

Mean ± S.D.a

22.3 ± 8.8

27.1 ± 7.0

Current-smoker

8(72.7)

Adenocarcinoma

5(45.5)

Median

22

29

Ex-smoker

1(9.1)

Squamous cell ca

6(54.6)

Minb-Maxc

10-34

16-35

Never smoker

1(9.1)

Others

0(0)

Others (10)

Mean ± S.D.a

21.3 ± 3.9

22.7 ± 4.3

Current-smoker

5(50)

Adenocarcinoma

4(40)

Median

22

22.5

Ex-smoker

2(20)

Squamous cell ca

3(30)

Minb-Maxc

16-28

16-30

Never smoker

3(30)

Others

3(30)

Single exposure (11)

Mean ± S.D.a

23.2 ± 11.0

30 ± 8.7

Current-smoker

7(63.6)

Adenocarcinoma

5(45.5)

Median

20

30

Ex-smoker

2(18.2)

Squamous cell ca

3(27.3)

Minb-Maxc

10-50

19-50

Never smoker

2(18.2)

Others

3(27.3)

Co-exposure (20)

Mean ± S.D.a

22.1 ± 6.8

24.8 ± 6.2

Current-smoker

12(63.2)

Adenocarcinoma

8(40)

Median

22

24

Ex-smoker

3(15.8)

Squamous cell ca

9(45)

Minb-Maxc

10-34

16-35

Never smoker

4(21.1)

Others

3(15)

aS.D. is the abbreviation of standard deviation; bMin is minimal value; cMax is maximal value

Cases for which asbestos was surveyed as a key carcinogen or a secondary carcinogen were selected and analyzed as follows. When classified by industry and occupation, the manufacturing industry in the high-level industry classification accounted for the highest number with 70 cases, including construction (31 cases), followed by transportation (23 cases). Industries and occupations with 2 or more asbestos-related lung cancer patients included maintenance and spinning (textile) in the other fiber (asbestos) spinning (or textile) industry; construction material manufacturing in the asbestos, mineral woolen and other similar product manufacturing industry; machine system installation and repair in the petroleum refining industry; machine system installation and repair in the basic iron and steel manufacturing industry; welding in the structural metal parts manufacturing industry; brake lining assembly in the motor vehicle assembly industry; brake lining manufacturing in the motor vehicle parts manufacturing industry; welding and ship machinery in the shipbuilding industry; ship assembly in the ship parts manufacturing industry; welding, insulation and plumbing in the plant construction industry; scaffolding in the scaffolding industry; insulation and welding in the cooling and heating and plumbing related industry; driver, attendant and maintenance in the railroad train, underground train transportation industry; bus driving, repair and maintenance in the city bus transportation industry; and boiler operation in the real estate management industry. Boiler-related occupations (operation and maintenance) were noted throughout all industries (Table 14).
Table 14

The Classification of industry and job and exposed carcinogens in compensated asbestos-related lung cancers in Korea (1994-2011)

Industry classification (No of cases)

Industry classification

Job classification (No of cases)

No of cases

Main carcinogen

Minor carcinogen

Mining and quarrying (1)

Mining of non-ferrous (tungsten) metals

Repairer & welder

1

Asbestos

Welding fume

Manufacturing (70)

Bean curd and similar products

Boiler operators

1

Asbestos

PAHb

Spinning (or weaving) of other textile fibers (asbestos)

Maintenance & repairer (4)

10

Asbestos

 

Spinning (or weaving) worker (6)

Other printing

Paper arrangement worker

1

Asbestos

 

Petroleum refineries

Machinery equipment fitters and repairers

2

Asbestos

 

Synthetic fibers

Spinning (or weaving) (1)

2

Asbestos

PAHb (1)

Boiler operator (1)

Pottery and ceramic household or ornamental ware

Pottery making (burning)

1

Silica

Asbestos

Asbestos, mineral wools and other similar products

Gasket & sheet manufacture (mixing) (1)

8

Asbestos

 

Construction material manufacturers (slate, heat insulator, et al) (6)

Machinery equipment fitters and repairers (1)

Basic iron

Metal furnace operators

1

Asbestos

 

Basic steel

Electrical furnace operator(1)

4

Cr6+

Asbestos

Rolling mii operator (1)

Asbestos

Cr6+,Nickel

Crane operator(1)

Cr6+

Asbestos, Nickel

Machinery equipment fitters and repairers (welding)(1)

Asbestos

Rolled, drawn and folded products of aluminum

Machinery equipment fitters and repairers (plumber)

1

Asbestos

 

Gray and malleable iron foundries / Steel foundries

Foundry workers: melting, molding, core making, fettling

1

Silica

asbestos

Metal structural components

Welding

4

Asbestos, Cr6+

Welding fume

Central heating boilers and radiators

Boiler maker

1

Asbestos

Silica, F, Metal

Weapons and ammunition

Plumbing & welding

1

Asbestos

Welding fume

Heat treatment of metals

Heat treatment & welding

1

PAHb

Cr6+, Asbestos, FA

General hardware

Die and mold makers

1

Asbestos

 

Hand-operated kitchen appliances and metal ware

Fitting & welding

1

Asbestos

Welding fume

Air conditioning and control machines

Machine manufacturer

1

Asbestos

 

Motor vehicles

Automobile parts (brake lining) assemblers

3

Asbestos(3)

 

Motor vehicles for the transport of goods and special purpose

Building and machine repairers

1

Asbestos

 

Other parts and accessories for motor vehicles n. e. c.

Automobile parts (brake lining or gasket) manufacturer (5)

6

Asbestos (6)

F

Foundry works (1)

Silica

Building of steel ships

Welding (7)

13

Asbestos(7), Coaltar(1)

Welding fume(6), Cr6+,Asbestos(1)

Painting (1)

Asbestos (1)

Plumbing (1)

Asbestos(1)

Insulation (1)

Asbestos(1)

Electrical equipment engineers (1)

Asbestos(2)

Ship mechanics (2)

Silica(1), Cr6+&PAHb

F(2)

Sections for ships

Ship assemblers

4

Asbestos

 

Ship engineers and repairers

Asbestos, Cr6+

Painters

Upholstered seats for transport vehicles

Drying oven fitters

1

Asbestos

 

Sewage, waste management, materials recovery and remediation activities (1)

Construction and demolition waste collection

Waste collection and transportation

1

DEEa

Asbestos

construction(31)

Construction of highways, streets and roads

Road repairers (1)

5

Asbestos(1)

 

Installation of environmental hygiene treatment appliances

Construction waste transport workers

1

Asbestos

DEEa

Construction of industrial plants

Welding(5)

13

Welding fume (4), Asbestos (1)

Asbestos(4), Welding fume(1)

Insulation (5)

Asbestos(5)

Pipe making (2)

Asbestos(2)

Wrecking and demolition of buildings and other structures (ships)

Ship repairers and wreckers

1

Asbestos

 

Scaffolding and frame works

Scaffolders (3)

3

Asbestos (3)

 

Heating, air conditioning and plumbing related works

Insulation (4)

7

Asbestos (4)

Welding fume(1)

Boiler fitters and mechanics (1)

Asbestos (1)

Welding (2)

Asbestos(1), Welding fume(1)

Asbestos(1)

Other building completion n.e.c.

Wrecking & interior

1

Asbestos

Welding fume

Transportation (23)

Interurban rail transportation

Railway signalmen and repairers

1

Asbestos

Radon

Commuter rail systems

Electric train drivers (3)

16

Asbestos(3)

Radon(3)

Electric train attendants (6)

 

Asbestos(6)

Radon(6)

Repairers and maintenance (7)

Asbestos(7)

Welding fume & Radon & DEEa (4)

Radon&DEEa (1)

Radon(1), Welding fume(1)

Urban bus passenger transport

Bus driver & repairer (2)

6

DEEa (1), Asbestos(1)

Asbestos(1),DEEa (1)

Bus repairer & maintenance (4)

Asbestos(3), DEEa (1)

DEEa (1), Asbestos(1)

aDEE is the abbreviation of diesel engine exhaust; bPAH is polyaromatic hydrocarbons

When these industries and occupations were analyzed in light of work environment monitoring results based on the criterion of 4 fiber-year with the relative risk of lung cancer of 2, as proposed by Gustavsson et al. [5], all occupations satisfied the criterion of 4 fiber-year in 5 years, except for boiler-related occupations. Furthermore, these industries and occupations met the definition of work involving asbestos exposure according to standards for industrial accident compensation in the approval standards of Japan.

Conclusion

Proposal of new approval standards of occupational cancers due to asbestos exposure

Since announced, the Helsinki Criteria served as the approval standards or guidelines for asbestos-related lung disease in many countries. However, there were numerous discussions on the criteria and approval standards have been revised in a number of countries. As the post-Helsinki discussion in Korea, this study reviewed the use of CT in recognition of lung cancer due to asbestos, criteria of asbestosis on CT, asbestos exposure concentrations in recognition of lung cancer due to asbestos, relationship between cigarette smoke and asbestos in causing lung cancer, latent duration between asbestos exposure and lung cancer, and relationship between larynx cancer and lung cancer.

As described previously, the current approval standards of asbestos-related diseases in Korea have just copied Japanese approval standards of decades ago, and new standards enacted in July 2013 are still unspecific and vague. Therefore, this study proposed new approval standards of occupational cancers due to asbestos, based on post-Helsinki discussions, work environment monitoring data in Korea, and analysis of lung cancer cases recognized as an industrial accident.
  1. In recognizing an asbestos-induced lung cancer, diagnosis of asbestosis should be based on CT.

     
Several studies have reported a high incidence of lung cancers even without asbestosis on simple chest X-ray. Even when asbestosis was not found with chest radiography, the odd ratio for lung cancer increased with a longer duration of cumulative asbestos exposure. was an additional risk factor and exhibited a weaker dose-response relationship than the cumulative exposure duration. HRCT is already in use in a number of countries in diagnosing lung diseases due to asbestos. CT was found to be highly useful in terms of sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value. Subpleural dotlike opacities and subpleural curvilinear opacities on HRCT are noted for early stage asbestosis, and over the course of disease, intralobular interstitial thickening or intralobular lines and interlobular septal thickening are observed.
  1. Industries and occupations with high exposure to asbestos in Korea should be taken into account.

     
When industries and occupations with 2 or more asbestos-related lung cancer patients were analyzed in work environment monitoring results based on the criterion of 4 fiber-year with the relative risk of lung cancer of 2, as proposed by Gustavsson et al. [5], all occupations satisfied the criterion of 4 fiber-year in 5 years, except for boiler-related occupations. Furthermore, these industries and occupations met the definition of work involving asbestos exposure according to standards for industrial accident compensation in the approval standards of Japan.
  1. An expert’s determination is warranted in case of a worker who has been concurrently exposed to other carcinogens, even if the duration after asbestos exposure is less than 10 years.

     
In most countries, approval standards of asbestos-related diseases require that at least 10 years should have passed since asbestos exposure. In most epidemiological studies, asbestos-related cancers develop 10 years after exposure. However, according to KOSHA and Occupational Lung Diseases Institute between 1994 and 2011, lung cancer cases recognized as an industrial accident in Korea involved exposure to multiple carcinogens, with 50 % or more in case of the KOSHA data and approximately 65 % for the Occupational Lung Diseases Institute data. As there have been few studies of the risk of lung cancer due to concurrent exposure to asbestos and other carcinogens, it is warranted to seek an expert’s judgment in case of multiple exposures.
  1. Determination of a larynx cancer due to asbestos exposure has the same approval standards with an asbestos-induced lung cancer. However, for an ovarian cancer, an expert’s judgment is necessary even if asbestosis, pleural plaque, pleural thickening and high concentration asbestos exposure are confirmed.

     
Larynx cancer has a dose-response relationship with asbestos exposure, as lung cancer However, in case of an ovarian cancer, there is no available domestic epidemiological survey for asbestos-related ovarian cancer and no cases have been claimed or recognized so far. While some overseas data claim evidence of the association between asbestos and ovarian cancer, only a few epidemiological studies [35, 4] have been conducted. Therefore, an expert’s judgment is warranted for recognition in case an asbestos-related ovarian cancer is submitted for application of an industrial accident.
  1. Cigarette smoking status or the extent should not affect determination of an occupational cancer caused by asbestos as smoking and asbestos have a synergistic effect in causing a lung cancer and they are involved in carcinogenesis in a complicated manner.

     

Declarations

Acknowledgements

This research is a part of the “Exposure level in the evaluation of work-relatedness of occupational cancer”, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Association was performed with the assistance of ministry of employment and Labor.

Lung cancer cases of this research were quoted from databases of prof. Yeon-Soon Ahn (Department of Occupational Medicine, Dongguk University). Competing interestsThe authors declare that they have no competing interestsAuthors’ contributionSanghyuk Im participated in the study design, analysis of the data and writing. KW Youn, DH Shin, MJ Lee performed writing and reviewed the article. SJ Choi interpreted the data and performed writing. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

Authors’ Affiliations

(1)
Wonjin Institute for Occupational & Environmental Health, Green Hospital
(2)
Catholic University of Daegu

References

  1. Enforcement Decree of the Industrial Accident Compensation Insurance Act, Appendix Table 3, 10 Occupational Cancer, Ministry of Employment and Labor, korea. 2013. http://elaw.klri.re.kr/eng_service/main.do.
  2. Tossavainen A, Huuskonen MS, Rantanen J, Lehtinen S. Asbestos, asbestosis, and cancer. Proceedings of the International Expert Group Meeting, Helsinki FIOH. People and Work, Research Reports 14; 1997. Google Scholar
  3. Tossavainen A. Asbestos, asbestosis, and cancer: the Helsinki criteria for diagnosis and attribution. Consensus Report. Scand J Work Environ Health. 1997;23:311–6. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9322824. Accessed date January 2013.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  4. Gustavsson P, Jakobsson R, Nyberg F, Pershagen G, Järup L, Schéele P. Occupational exposure and lung cancer risk: a population-based case referent study in Sweden. Am J Epidemiol. 2000;152(1):32–40.Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10901327. Accessed date January 2013. PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  5. Gustavsson P, Nyberg F, Pershagen G, Schéele P, Jakobsson R. Low-dose exposure to asbestos and lung cancer: dose-response relations and interaction with smoking in a population-based case-referent study in Stockholm, Sweden. Am J Epidemiol. 2002;155(11):1016–22. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12034580. Accessed date January 2013.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  6. IARC. Asbestos. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans, vol. 14. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 1977. p.106.Google Scholar
  7. IARC. Asbestos. In Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans, suppl 7. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 1987. p. 106-116.Google Scholar
  8. National Academy of Sciences. Asbestos: Selected Cancers. The National Academies, Institute of Medicine, Board on Population Health and Public Health Practices, Committee on Asbestos: Selected Health Effects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2006. p. 340. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK4119/.Google Scholar
  9. Straif K, Benbrahim-Tallaa L, Baan R, Grosse Y, Secretan B, El Ghissassi F, et al. A review of human carcinogens—Part C: metals, arsenic, dusts, and fibres. Lancet Oncol. 2009;10(5):453–4. Available from: http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lanonc/article/PIIS1470-2045(09)70134-2/fulltext?_eventId=login. Accessed date January 2013.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  10. Wilkinson P, Janssens J, Rubens M, Rudd RM, Hansell DM, Taylor AN, et al. Is lung cancer associated with asbestos exposure without small opacities on the chest radiograph? Lancet. 1995;345:1074–8. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S014067369590817X. Accessed date January 2013.
  11. Banks DE, Wang ML, Parker JE. Asbestos exposure, asbestosis, and lung cancer. Chest. 1999;115:320–2. Available from: http://journal.publications.chestnet.org/article.aspx?articleid=1076894. Accessed date January 2013.
  12. de Klerk NH, Musk AW, Glancy JJ, Pang SC, Lund HG, Olsen N, et al. Crocidolite, radiographic asbestosis and subsequent lung cancer. Ann Occup Hyg. 1997;41:134–6. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0003487897800270. Accessed date April 2013.
  13. Finkelstein MM. Radiographic asbestosis is not a prerequisite for asbestos-associated lung cancer in Ontario asbestos-cement workers. Am J Ind Med. 1997;32:341–8. Available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0274(199710)32:4%3C341::AID-AJIM4%3E3.0.CO;2-X/pdf. Accessed date April 2013. 
  14. Parker J. Radiological criteria: the use of chest imaging techniques in asbestos-related diseases. In: Proceedings of an international expert meeting on asbestos, asbestosis and cancer, vol. 14. Helsinki: Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, People and Work Research Reports; 1997.Google Scholar
  15. Sone S, Takashima S, Li F, Yang Z, Honda T, Maruyama Y, et al. Mass screening for lung cancer with mobile spiral computed tomography scanner. Lancet. 1998;351(9111):1242–5. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0140673697082299. Accessed date April 2013.
  16. Sone S, Li F, Yang Z, Honda T, Maruyama Y, Takashima S, et al. Results of three-year mass screening programme for lung cancer using mobile low-dose spiral computed tomography scanner. Br J Cancer. 2001;84(1):25.Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2363609/ Accessed date April 2013.
  17. Tossavainen A. International expert meeting on new advances in the radiology and screening of asbestos-related diseases. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2000;26(5):449–54.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  18. Sone S. Lung cancer screening using mobile low-dose computed tomography: results from Nagano project in Japan. In: Proceedings of an international expert meeting on new advances in radiology and screening of asbestos-related diseases. Helsinki: Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, 2000:3346. People and Work Research Reports, no 36.Google Scholar
  19. Henschke C, McCauley D, Yankelevitz D, Naidich D, McGuinness G, Miettinen O, et al. Early Lung Cancer Action Project: overall design and findings from baseline screening. Lancet. 1999;354(9173):99-105.Google Scholar
  20. Vehmas T, Kivisaari L, Zitting A, Mattson K, Nordman H, Huuskonen M. Computed tomography (CT) and high resolution CT for the early diagnosis of lung and pleural disease in workers exposed to asbestos: Finnish experiences. In: Proceedings of an international expert meeting on new advances in radiology and screening of asbestos-related diseases. Helsinki: Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, 2000:53-6. People and Work Research Reports, no 36.Google Scholar
  21. Al-Jarad N, Strickland B, Pearson MC, Rubens MB, Rudd RM. High resolution computed tomo- graphic assessment of asbestosis and cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis: a comparative study. Thorax. 1992;47(8):645–50. Available from: http://thorax.bmj.com/content/47/8/645. Accessed date April 2013.
  22. Akira M, Yamamoto S, Inoue Y, Sakatani M. High-resolution CT of asbestosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Am J Roentgenol. 2003;181(1):163–9.Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12818850. Accessed date April 2013.
  23. Kim JS. Imaging diagnosis of asbestosis. J Korean Med Assoc. 2009;52(5):465–71. Available from: http://synapse.koreamed.org/DOIx.php?id=10.5124/jkma.2009.52.5.465&vmode=FULL. Accessed date April 2013.
  24. Douglas W. Hehderson, Klaus Ro Delsperger, Hans-joachim, Woitowitz, James Leigh. After Helsinki: a multidisciplinary review of the relationship between asbestos exposure and lung cancer, with emphasis on studies published during 1997–2004. Pathology. 2004;36(6):517–50. Available from: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00313020400010955#.VmPcTZuwecw. Accessed date May 2013.
  25. Dement JM, Harris Jr RL, Symons MJ, Shy C. Estimates of dose– response for respiratory cancer among chrysotile asbestos textile workers. Ann Occup Hyg. 1982;26(8):869–87. Available from: http://annhyg.oxfordjournals.org/content/26/8/869.abstract. Accessed date May 2013.
  26. Erren TC, Jacobsen M, Piekarski C. Synergy between asbestos and smoking on lung cancer risks. Epidemiology. 1999;10(4):405–11. Available from: http:// journals.lww.com/epidem/Abstract/1999/07000/Synergy_between_Asbestos_and_Smoking_on_Lung_.11.aspx. Accessed date May 2013.
  27. Nelson HH, Kelsey KT. The molecular epidemiology of asbestos and tobacco in lung cancer. Oncogene. 2002;21(48):7284–8. Available from: http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/12379872. Accessed date June 2013.
  28. Churg A, Stevens B. Enhanced retention of asbestos fibers in the airways of human smokers. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1995;151(5):1409–13. Available from: http://www.atsjournals.org/doi/abs/10.1164/ajrccm.151.5.7735593#.VmPfSpuwecw. Accessed date June 2013.
  29. Bach PB, Kattan MW, Thornquist MD, Kris MG, Tate RC, Barnett MJ, et al. Variations in lung cancer risk among smokers. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2003;95(6):470–8. Available from: http://jnci.oxfordjournals.org/content/95/6/470.short. Accessed date June 2013.
  30. Bailar JC, Buseck PR, Coleman RG, Frank A, Herrick RF, Kelsey KT, et al. Asbestos: Selected Cancers. Committee on Asbestos. Washington (DC): National Academy Press; 2006.Google Scholar
  31. Recognition of an industrial accident due to asbestos. Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare.Japan; 2012. http://www.mhlw.go.jp/new-info/kobetu/roudou/gyousei/rousai/dl/061013-4_leaflet.pdf.
  32. Formulaire de Demande D'Indemnisation-Ayant Droit. France. http://www.fiva.fr/documents/Formulaire_notice_V.pdf.
  33. Recognition criteria for methothelioma. Appendix 3: Recognition criteria for mesothelioma. Asbestos-related occupational diseases in Europe: Recognition, statistics, specific systems. Eurogip; 2006. http://www.eurogip.fr/en/publications-d-eurogip/130-asbestos-related-occupational-diseases-in-europe-recognition-statistics-specific-systems.
  34. Acheson ED, Gardner MJ, Pippard EC, Grime LP. Mortality of two groups of women who manufactured gas masks from chrysotile and crocidolite asbestos: a 40-year followup. Br J Ind Med. 1982;39:344–8. Available from: http://oem.bmj.com/content/39/4/344.short. Accessed date June 2013.
  35. Wignall BK, Fox AJ. Mortality of female gas mask assemblers. Br J Ind Med. 1982;39:34–8. Available from: http://oem.bmj.com/content/39/1/34.short. Accessed date June 2013.

Copyright

© Im et al. 2015

Advertisement